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      Train Accidents: Development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Train Drivers Translated title: Acidentes de comboio: Desenvolvimento da perturbação de stress pós-traumático nos maquinistas


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          The objective of this study is to verify whether there is a correlation between PTSD, Depression, Life Events and Experiences of Dissociation Peritraumatic, and what is the effect of these variables on PTSD. Railway accidents are considered potentially traumatic events and one of the consequences is the development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). There are few studies that focus on the association between train accidents and the development of PTSD on train drivers.


          In total, 216 male train drivers with a mean age of 44.85 (SD = 5.70), completed the Portuguese versions of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), the List of Life Events – Clinician Administered (CAPS), the PTSD Checklist Civilian Version (PCL-C) and the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ).


          A prevalence of PTSD symptoms in train drivers (8.3%) was revealed, as well as the existence of a significant correlation between PTSD and the main variables: Depression (r = .70, p < .001), Life Events (r = .25, p < .001) and Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences (r = .63, p < .001), and also that variables BDI-II (β = .51, t = 9.60, p < .001) and PDEQ (β = .34, t = 6.24, p < .001) have a significant impact at the PCL-C (R² = .58).


          According to the results obtained and taking into account that 8.3% of train drivers present symptoms of PTSD, we consider important the existence of a reparative and preventive psychological support after the railway accident, in order to minimize the psychological impact on train drivers.

          Translated abstract


          O objetivo deste estudo foi o de verificar se existe uma correlação entre a PTSD, Depressão, Eventos de Vida e Experiências de Dissociação Peri-traumática, e qual o efeito dessas variáveis na PSPT. Os acidentes ferroviários são considerados eventos potencialmente traumáticos e uma das consequências é o desenvolvimento de Perturbação de Stress Pós-Traumático (PTSD). Há poucos estudos que focam a associação entre acidentes de comboio e o desenvolvimento de PTSD em maquinistas.


          No total, 216 maquinistas do sexo masculino com média de idade de 44,85 (DP = 5,70) completaram as versões em português do Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), a Lista de Eventos de Vida - Administração Clinica (CAPS), o PTSD Checklist Civilian Version (PCL-C) e o Questionário de Experiências Dissociativas Peri-traumáticas (PDEQ).


          A prevalência de sintomas de PSPT em maquinistas (8,3%) foi revelada, bem como a existência de uma correlação significativa entre PSPT e as principais variáveis: Depressão (r = .70, p < .001), Eventos de Vida (r = .25, p < .001) e Experiências Dissociativas Peri-traumáticas (r = .63, p < .001), e também aquelas variáveis BDI-II (β = .51, t = 9,60, p < .001) e PDEQ (β = .34, t = 6.24, p < .001) têm um impacto significativo no PCL-C (R2 = .58).


          De acordo com os resultados obtidos e tendo em conta que 8.3% dos maquinistas apresentam sintomas de PTSD, consideramos importante a existência de um suporte psicológico reparador e preventivo após o acidente ferroviário, a fim de minimizar o impacto psicológico nos maquinistas.

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            Data were obtained on the general population epidemiology of DSM-III-R posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), including information on estimated life-time prevalence, the kinds of traumas most often associated with PTSD, sociodemographic correlates, the comorbidity of PTSD with other lifetime psychiatric disorders, and the duration of an index episode. Modified versions of the DSM-III-R PTSD module from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview were administered to a representative national sample of 5877 persons aged 15 to 54 years in the part II subsample of the National Comorbidity Survey. The estimated lifetime prevalence of PTSD is 7.8%. Prevalence is elevated among women and the previously married. The traumas most commonly associated with PTSD are combat exposure and witnessing among men and rape and sexual molestation among women. Posttraumatic stress disorder is strongly comorbid with other lifetime DSM-III-R disorders. Survival analysis shows that more than one third of people with an index episode of PTSD fail to recover even after many years. Posttraumatic stress disorder is more prevalent than previously believed, and is often persistent. Progress in estimating age-at-onset distributions, cohort effects, and the conditional probabilities of PTSD from different types of trauma will require future epidemiologic studies to assess PTSD for all lifetime traumas rather than for only a small number of retrospectively reported "most serious" traumas.
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              Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and symptoms in adults: a meta-analysis.

              A review of 2,647 studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) yielded 476 potential candidates for a meta-analysis of predictors of PTSD or of its symptoms. From these, 68 studies met criteria for inclusion in a meta-analysis of 7 predictors: (a) prior trauma, (b) prior psychological adjustment, (c) family history of psychopathology, (d) perceived life threat during the trauma, (e) posttrauma social support, (f) peritraumatic emotional responses, and (g) peritraumatic dissociation. All yielded significant effect sizes, with family history, prior trauma, and prior adjustment the smallest (weighted r = .17) and peritraumatic dissociation the largest (weighted r = .35). The results suggest that peritraumatic psychological processes, not prior characteristics, are the strongest predictors of PTSD.

                Author and article information

                Psychol Community Health
                Psychology, Community & Health
                Psychol. Community Health
                03 August 2018
                : 7
                : 1
                : 44-56
                [a ]Promoting Human Potential Research Group, ISPA - University Institute , Lisbon, Portugal
                [2]William James Center for Research (WJCR), ISPA – Instituto Universitário, Lisbon, Portugal
                Author notes
                [* ]ISPA – University Institute, Rua Jardim do Tabaco, 34- 1149-041 Lisbon, Portugal. iclemos@ 123456cp.pt
                Copyright @ 2018

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 01 February 2016
                : 26 March 2018
                Methodological Articles

                perturbação de stress pós-traumático,maquinistas,post-traumatic stress disorder,train drivers,train accidents,acidentes de comboio


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