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      OxLDL induces the release of IL-1β from primed human endothelial and smooth muscle cells via different caspase -1-dependent mechanisms


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          Atherosclerosis is characterised by abnormal lipid and cell accumulation within arterial layers that leads to disturbed blood flow. Modified cholesterol forms such as oxidised low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) enter cells altering their phenotype, triggering over-exuberant repair and arterial occlusion, myocardial infarction or stroke. We hypothesised that oxLDL enters vascular wall cells and induces interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion, potentially via a caspase-1/NLRP3 mechanism. Human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) and smooth muscle cells (HCASMC), isolated from different donors, were cultured and stimulated (primed) with pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-1α (10 ng/mL each, for 48 h), followed by incubation with human oxLDL (10–50 ug/mL) for up to 6 h. Inhibitors of caspase-1 (YVAD), NLRP3 (MCC950) and gasdermin D (disulfiram) were added 1 h before oxLDL. Cell lysates and culture supernatants were collected and analysed for IL-1β using ELISA. Microscopy imaging showed oxLDL entered stimulated cells and formed particles. OxLDL at 20 and 50 ug/mL induced the maximum release of IL-1β from stimulated HCASMCs and HCAECs, respectively, compared to control. Inhibition of either NLRP3, caspase-1 or gasdermin D significantly reduced the release of IL-1β (4-fold, P < 0.0001; 14-fold, P < 0.0001, 1.5-fold, P < 0.0003, respectively) in HCAEC. In contrast, in HCASMCs, only caspase-1 inhibition reduced the release of IL-1β (2.1-fold, P < 0.0001). HCAECs and HCASMCs elicited the release of IL-1β in response to the same stimulus via different mechanisms. In HCAECs, released IL-1β potentially exits via a GSDMD-induced membrane pore. These data suggest that caspase-1 or gasdermin D inhibition is likely to be effective vessel wall cell-specific strategies for the reduction of atherosclerosis.

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          Antiinflammatory Therapy with Canakinumab for Atherosclerotic Disease.

          Experimental and clinical data suggest that reducing inflammation without affecting lipid levels may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Yet, the inflammatory hypothesis of atherothrombosis has remained unproved.
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            The inflammasomes.

            Inflammasomes are molecular platforms activated upon cellular infection or stress that trigger the maturation of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1beta to engage innate immune defenses. Strong associations between dysregulated inflammasome activity and human heritable and acquired inflammatory diseases highlight the importance this pathway in tailoring immune responses. Here, we comprehensively review mechanisms directing normal inflammasome function and its dysregulation in disease. Agonists and activation mechanisms of the NLRP1, NLRP3, IPAF, and AIM2 inflammasomes are discussed. Regulatory mechanisms that potentiate or limit inflammasome activation are examined, as well as emerging links between the inflammasome and pyroptosis and autophagy. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Inflammasome-activated gasdermin D causes pyroptosis by forming membrane pores.

              Inflammatory caspases (caspases 1, 4, 5 and 11) are activated in response to microbial infection and danger signals. When activated, they cleave mouse and human gasdermin D (GSDMD) after Asp276 and Asp275, respectively, to generate an N-terminal cleavage product (GSDMD-NT) that triggers inflammatory death (pyroptosis) and release of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β. Cleavage removes the C-terminal fragment (GSDMD-CT), which is thought to fold back on GSDMD-NT to inhibit its activation. However, how GSDMD-NT causes cell death is unknown. Here we show that GSDMD-NT oligomerizes in membranes to form pores that are visible by electron microscopy. GSDMD-NT binds to phosphatidylinositol phosphates and phosphatidylserine (restricted to the cell membrane inner leaflet) and cardiolipin (present in the inner and outer leaflets of bacterial membranes). Mutation of four evolutionarily conserved basic residues blocks GSDMD-NT oligomerization, membrane binding, pore formation and pyroptosis. Because of its lipid-binding preferences, GSDMD-NT kills from within the cell, but does not harm neighbouring mammalian cells when it is released during pyroptosis. GSDMD-NT also kills cell-free bacteria in vitro and may have a direct bactericidal effect within the cytosol of host cells, but the importance of direct bacterial killing in controlling in vivo infection remains to be determined.

                Author and article information

                Vasc Biol
                Vasc Biol
                Vascular Biology
                Bioscientifica Ltd (Bristol )
                22 August 2022
                01 February 2022
                : 4
                : 1
                : 11-18
                [1 ]Department of Infection Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease , University of Sheffield, Medical School, Sheffield, UK
                [2 ]Healthy Lifespan Institute HELSI , University of Sheffield, Medical School, Sheffield, UK
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to S Francis: s.francis@ 123456sheffield.ac.uk

                *(M Almansouri and P Patel contributed equally to this work)

                †(M Almansouri is now at Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia)

                Author information
                © The authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                : 30 June 2022
                : 22 August 2022

                hcaecs,hcasmcs,atherosclerosis,oxldl,caspase-1,gasdermin d,il-1β
                hcaecs, hcasmcs, atherosclerosis, oxldl, caspase-1, gasdermin d, il-1β


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