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      Perfil químico y actividad antioxidante de aceites esenciales de hierbas aromáticas altoandinas del Perú Translated title: Chemical profile and antioxidant activity of the essential oil of native high Andean species of Perú Translated title: Perfil químico e atividade antioxidante do óleo essencial de espécies nativas dos altos Andes do Perú


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          RESUMEN: Las hierbas aromáticas tienen una amplia distribución en la región de Apurímac, Perú, donde encontramos especies silvestres y cultivadas, su interés se basa en la presencia de aceites esenciales que contiene componentes bioactivos que son usados como conservantes en la industria de alimentos. El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar el perfil químico y actividad antioxidante de los aceites esenciales de Lepechinia meyenii (Walp) Epling y Mentha piperita L. La extracción de aceites esenciales se realizó mediante la destilación por arrastre de vapor de agua a condiciones de sobresaturación. Se determinaron los siguientes parámetros: rendimiento de extracción, densidad relativa e índice de refracción. El perfil químico se realizó mediante la cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrómetria de masas y la actividad antioxidante mediante la eliminación del radical libre 1,1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazilo y H2O2. (DPPH), como resultado, el porcentaje de rendimiento fue del 0,87 % y 0,56 %, con densidades de 0,942 g/mL y 0,919 g/mL y índice de refracción de 1,4917 y 1,4676 para Lepechinia meyenii (Walp) Epling y Mentha piperita L.), respectivamente. Los aceites esenciales se caracterizaron principalmente por una fracción sesquiterpenoides en un (55,73 %) y con una fracción monoterpenoides en un (55,60 %). La actividad antioxidante fue significante de 4,95-0,06 mg/mL y 7,21-0,21 mg/mL. Los aceites esenciales a partir de hierbas aromáticas presentaron significativamente altos componentes químicos y actividad antioxidante, siendo posibles candidatos antimicrobianos, antioxidantes, antibacterianas para la industria alimentaria.

          Translated abstract

          ABSTRACT: Aromatic herbs have a wide distribution in the Apurímac region, Peru, where we find wild and cultivated species, their interest is based on the presence of essential oils that contain bioactive components that are used as preservatives in the food industry. The objective of the research was to determine the chemical profile and antioxidant activity of the essential oils of Lepechinia meyenii (Walp) Epling and Mentha piperita L. The extraction of essential oils was carried out by means of water vapor distillation under conditions of supersaturation. The following parameters were determined: extraction yield, relative density and refractive index. The chemical profile was made by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and the antioxidant activity by elimination of the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and H2O2. (DPPH), as a result, the yield percentage was 0.87% and 0.56%, with densities of 0.942 g / mL and 0.919 g / mL and refractive index of 1.4917 and 1.4676 for Lepechinia meyenii (Walp) Epling and Mentha piperita L.), respectively. Essential oils are mainly characterized by a sesquiterpenoid fraction (55.73%) and a monoterpenoid fraction (55.60%). The antioxidant activity was significant at 4.95-0.06 mg / mL and 7.21-0.21 mg / mL. Essential oils from aromatic herbs presented high chemical components and antioxidant activity, being possible antimicrobial, antioxidant, antibacterial candidates for the food industry.

          Translated abstract

          RESUMO: As ervas aromáticas têm ampla distribuição na região de Apurímac, Peru, onde encontramos espécies silvestres e cultivadas, seu interesse se baseia na presença de óleos essenciais que contêm componentes bioativos que são usados como conservantes na indústria alimentícia. O objetivo da pesquisa foi determinar o perfil químico e a atividade antioxidante dos óleos essenciais de Lepechinia meyenii (Walp) Epling e Mentha piperita L. A extração dos óleos essenciais foi realizada por meio de destilação a vapor d'água em condições de supersaturação. Os seguintes parâmetros foram determinados: rendimento de extração, densidade relativa e índice de refração. O perfil químico foi feito por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas e a atividade antioxidante por eliminação dos radicais livres 1,1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazila e H2O2. (DPPH), como resultado, o percentual de rendimento foi de 0,87% e 0,56%, com densidades de 0,942 g / mL e 0,919 g / mL e índice de refração de 1,4917 e 1,4676 para Lepechinia meyenii (Walp) Epling e Mentha piperita L.), respectivamente. Os óleos essenciais são caracterizados principalmente por uma fração sesquiterpenóide (55,73%) e uma fração monoterpenóide (55,60%). A atividade antioxidante foi significativa em 4,95-0,06 mg / mL e 7,21-0,21 mg / mL. Os óleos essenciais de ervas aromáticas apresentam elevada atividade antioxidante e química, sendo possíveis candidatos antimicrobianos, antioxidantes e antibacterianos para a indústria alimentícia.

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          Most cited references48

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          Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods--a review.

          In vitro studies have demonstrated antibacterial activity of essential oils (EOs) against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella dysenteria, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus at levels between 0.2 and 10 microl ml(-1). Gram-negative organisms are slightly less susceptible than gram-positive bacteria. A number of EO components has been identified as effective antibacterials, e.g. carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, perillaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid, having minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.05-5 microl ml(-1) in vitro. A higher concentration is needed to achieve the same effect in foods. Studies with fresh meat, meat products, fish, milk, dairy products, vegetables, fruit and cooked rice have shown that the concentration needed to achieve a significant antibacterial effect is around 0.5-20 microl g(-1) in foods and about 0.1-10 microl ml(-1) in solutions for washing fruit and vegetables. EOs comprise a large number of components and it is likely that their mode of action involves several targets in the bacterial cell. The hydrophobicity of EOs enables them to partition in the lipids of the cell membrane and mitochondria, rendering them permeable and leading to leakage of cell contents. Physical conditions that improve the action of EOs are low pH, low temperature and low oxygen levels. Synergism has been observed between carvacrol and its precursor p-cymene and between cinnamaldehyde and eugenol. Synergy between EO components and mild preservation methods has also been observed. Some EO components are legally registered flavourings in the EU and the USA. Undesirable organoleptic effects can be limited by careful selection of EOs according to the type of food.
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            Essential oils as antimicrobials in food systems – A review

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              A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of peppermint tea (Mentha piperita L.).

              Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) is one of the most widely consumed single ingredient herbal teas, or tisanes. Peppermint tea, brewed from the plant leaves, and the essential oil of peppermint are used in traditional medicines. Evidence-based research regarding the bioactivity of this herb is reviewed. The phenolic constituents of the leaves include rosmarinic acid and several flavonoids, primarily eriocitrin, luteolin and hesperidin. The main volatile components of the essential oil are menthol and menthone. In vitro, peppermint has significant antimicrobial and antiviral activities, strong antioxidant and antitumor actions, and some antiallergenic potential. Animal model studies demonstrate a relaxation effect on gastrointestinal (GI) tissue, analgesic and anesthetic effects in the central and peripheral nervous system, immunomodulating actions and chemopreventive potential. Human studies on the GI, respiratory tract and analgesic effects of peppermint oil and its constituents have been reported. Several clinical trials examining the effects of peppermint oil on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms have been conducted. However, human studies of peppermint leaf are limited and clinical trials of peppermint tea are absent. Adverse reactions to peppermint tea have not been reported, although caution has been urged for peppermint oil therapy in patients with GI reflux, hiatal hernia or kidney stones.

                Author and article information

                Alfa Revista de Investigación en Ciencias Agronómicas y Veterinaria
                Rev. Inv. Cs. Agro. y Vet.
                CET-BOLIVIA (La Paz, , Bolivia )
                August 2021
                : 5
                : 14
                : 153-165
                [4] Andahuaylas Apurímac orgnameUniversidad Nacional José María Arguedas Peru gnolasco@ 123456unajma.edu.pe
                [1] Andahuaylas Apurímac orgnameUniversidad Nacional José María Arguedas Peru rhuaraca@ 123456unajma.edu.pe
                [2] Andahuaylas Apurímac orgnameUniversidad Nacional José María Arguedas Peru mcdelgado@ 123456unajma.edu.pe
                [3] Andahuaylas Apurímac orgnameUniversidad Nacional José María Arguedas Peru ftapia@ 123456unajma.edu.pe
                S2664-09022021000200153 S2664-0902(21)00501400153

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                : 05 April 2021
                : 30 April 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 48, Pages: 13

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