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      Mushrooms: A Potential Natural Source of Anti-Inflammatory Compounds for Medical Applications

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          Abstract

          For centuries, macrofungi have been used as food and medicine in different parts of the world. This is mainly attributed to their nutritional value as a potential source of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, and minerals. In addition, they also include many bioactive metabolites which make mushrooms and truffles common components in folk medicine, especially in Africa, the Middle East, China, and Japan. The reported medicinal effects of mushrooms include anti-inflammatory effects, with anti-inflammatory compounds of mushrooms comprising a highly diversified group in terms of their chemical structure. They include polysaccharides, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, and many other low molecular weight molecules. The aims of this review are to report the different types of bioactive metabolites and their relevant producers, as well as the different mechanisms of action of mushroom compounds as potent anti-inflammatory agents.

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          Most cited references116

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          Points of control in inflammation.

          Inflammation is a complex set of interactions among soluble factors and cells that can arise in any tissue in response to traumatic, infectious, post-ischaemic, toxic or autoimmune injury. The process normally leads to recovery from infection and to healing, However, if targeted destruction and assisted repair are not properly phased, inflammation can lead to persistent tissue damage by leukocytes, lymphocytes or collagen. Inflammation may be considered in terms of its checkpoints, where binary or higher-order signals drive each commitment to escalate, go signals trigger stop signals, and molecules responsible for mediating the inflammatory response also suppress it, depending on timing and context. The non-inflammatory state does not arise passively from an absence of inflammatory stimuli; rather, maintenance of health requires the positive actions of specific gene products to suppress reactions to potentially inflammatory stimuli that do not warrant a full response.
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            Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Essential Oils: A Short Review

            Essential oils are complex mixtures isolated from aromatic plants which may possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of interest in thye food and cosmetic industries as well as in the human health field. In this work, a review was done on the most recent publications concerning their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. At the same time a survey of the methods generally used for the evaluation of antioxidant activity and some of the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils are also reported.
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              Anticancer polysaccharides from natural resources: a review of recent research.

              Taking into account the rising trend of the incidence of cancers of various organs, effective therapies are urgently needed to control human malignancies. However, almost all of the chemotherapy drugs currently on the market cause serious side effects. Fortunately, several previous studies have shown that some non-toxic biological macromolecules, including polysaccharides and polysaccharide-protein complexes, possess anti-cancer activities or can increase the efficacy of conventional chemotherapy drugs. Based on these encouraging observations, a great deal of effort has been focused on discovering anti-cancer polysaccharides and complexes for the development of effective therapeutics for various human cancers. This review focuses on the advancements in the anti-cancer efficacy of various natural polysaccharides and polysaccharide complexes in the past 5 years. Most polysaccharides were tested using model systems, while several involved clinical trials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Mediators Inflamm
                Mediators Inflamm
                MI
                Mediators of Inflammation
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                0962-9351
                1466-1861
                2014
                23 November 2014
                : 2014
                : 805841
                Affiliations
                1Bioproducts Research Chair, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
                2Natural and Microbial Products Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo 12311, Egypt
                3Institute of Bioproduct Development (IBD), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81130 Skudai, Malaysia
                4City of Scientific Research and Technology Application, New Burg Al Arab, Alexandria 21934, Egypt
                Author notes
                *Elsayed A. Elsayed: eaelsayed@ 123456ksu.edu.sa

                Academic Editor: Julio Galvez

                Article
                10.1155/2014/805841
                4258329
                25505823
                0fef46d3-cf89-4878-8024-f8305d6e0280
                Copyright © 2014 Elsayed A. Elsayed et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 24 May 2014
                : 13 August 2014
                Categories
                Review Article

                Immunology
                Immunology

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