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      Mnemoscape: Supporting Older Adults’ Event Memory Using Wearable Camera Photographs on an Immersive Interface

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          Background: Wearable camera photographs have been shown to be an effective memory aid in people with and without memory impairment. Most studies using wearable cameras as a memory aid have presented photographs on a computer monitor and used a written diary or no review as a comparison. In this pioneering study, we took a new and innovative approach to wearable camera photograph review that embeds the photographs within a virtual landscape. This approach may enhance these benefits by reinstating the original environmental context to increase participants’ sense of re-experiencing the event. Objective: We compare the traditional computer monitor presentation of wearable camera photographs and actively taken digital photographs with the presentation of wearable camera photographs in a new immersive interface that reinstates the spatiotemporal context. Methods: Healthy older adults wore wearable or took digital photographs during a staged event. The next day and 2 weeks later, they viewed wearable camera photographs on a computer monitor or in context on an immersive interface, or digital photographs. Results: Participants who viewed wearable camera photographs in either format recalled more details during photo viewing and subsequent free recall than participants who viewed digital photographs they had taken themselves. Conclusion: Wearable camera photographs are an effective support for event memory, regardless of whether they are presented in context in an experience-near format.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Aging and autobiographical memory: dissociating episodic from semantic retrieval.

          Cognitive aging research documents reduced access to contextually specific episodic details inolder adults, whereas access to semantic or other nonepisodic information is preserved or facilitated. The present study extended this finding to autobiographical memory by using a new measure; the Autobiographical Interview. Younger and older adults recalled events from 5 life periods. Protocols were scored according to a reliable system for categorizing episodic and nonepisodic information. Whereas younger adults were biased toward episodic details reflecting happenings, locations, perceptions, and thoughts, older adults favored semantic details not connected to a particular time and place. This pattern persisted after additional structured probing for contextual details. The Autobiographical Interview is a useful instrument for quantifying episodic and semantic contributions to personal remote memory.
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            Environmental context-dependent memory: a review and meta-analysis.

            To address questions about human memory's dependence on the coincidental environmental contexts in which events occur, we review studies of incidental environmental context-dependent memory in humans and report a meta-analysis. Our theoretical approach to the issue stems from Glenberg's (1997) contention that introspective thought (e.g., remembering, conceptualizing) requires cognitive resources normally used to represent the immediate environment. We propose that if tasks encourage processing of noncontextual information (i.e., introspective thought) at input and/or at test, then both learning and memory will be less dependent on the ambient environmental contexts in which those activities occur. The meta-analysis showed that across all studies, environmental context effects were reliable, and furthermore, that the use of noncontextual cues during learning (overshadowing) and at test (outshining), as well as mental reinstatement of appropriate context cues at test, all reduce the effect of environmental manipulations. We conclude that environmental context-dependent memory effects are less likely to occur under conditions in which the immediate environment is likely to be suppressed.
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              An Update on Memory Reconsolidation Updating.

              The reactivation of a stored memory in the brain can make the memory transiently labile. During the time it takes for the memory to restabilize (reconsolidate) the memory can either be reduced by an amnesic agent or enhanced by memory enhancers. The change in memory expression is related to changes in the brain correlates of long-term memory. Many have suggested that such retrieval-induced plasticity is ideally placed to enable memories to be updated with new information. This hypothesis has been tested experimentally, with a translational perspective, by attempts to update maladaptive memories to reduce their problematic impact. We review here progress on reconsolidation updating studies, highlighting their translational exploitation and addressing recent challenges to the reconsolidation field.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                July 2020
                27 March 2020
                : 66
                : 4
                : 371-381
                aNational Institute for Experimental Arts, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
                bCentre for Memory & Law, Department of Psychology, City, University of London, London, United Kingdom
                cDepartment of Psychology, University of Westminster, London, United Kingdom
                Author notes
                *Amanda Selwood, National Institute for Experimental Arts, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia), amanda.e.selwood@gmail.com
                505848 Gerontology 2020;66:371–381
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, Pages: 11
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/505848
                Technological Section / Original Paper


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