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      Increased Levels of Soluble TNF-α Receptors and Cellular Adhesion Molecules in Patients Undergoing Bioincompatible Hemodialysis

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          Background: The study aimed to differentiate the effects of hemodialysis (HD) and chronic renal failure (CRF) on the levels of circulating tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and TNF-α receptors p55 and p75, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (sE-selectin) and sP-selectin in 18 patients on regular HD treatment with cuprophane membrane in relation to 15 non-dialyzed CRF patients and 15 healthy controls. Methods: The serum concentrations were determined with standard ELISA assays. Results: Blood serum p75 and p55 were approximately tenfold increased in CRF (36.7 ± 6.2 and 27.1 ± 5.6 ng/ml) and HD patients (45.6 ± 18.4 and 28.7 ± 5.9 ng/ml) before the HD session (HD 0), during (HD 20) the session (45.7 ± 18.4 and 28.5 ± 7.3 ng/ml) and after (HD 240) the HD session (52.1 ± 17.4 and 30.9 ± 8.2 ng/ml) in comparison to control values (5.6 ± 1.3 and 2.4 ± 0.8 ng/ml, respectively) (p < 0.01). The highest increment of p75 at the end of HD session (HD 240) was also significantly higher than at preceding time points (HD 0 and 20) (p < 0.05). However, the remaining study parameters did not change during an HD session. Also, there were no relevant changes in TNF-α levels if (HD 0) 22.7 ± 21.5 ng/ml and (HD 240) 21.1 ± 18.9 ng/ml were compared. Chronic HD status was related to the increase of sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 levels. Prior to HD, T0 sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 concentrations were 2,180.4 ± 761.8 and 567.3 ± 218.8 ng/ml, during HD (T20): 2,172.7 ± 759.2 and 602.3 ± 379.9 ng/ml, and after HD (T240): 2,401.6 ± 756.4 and 648.3 ± 183.5 ng/ml, respectively (p < 0.05 vs. controls and CRF patients). sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 serum levels (1,262.2 ± 472.9 and 165.6 ± 50.4 ng/ml) were similar in CRF patients and healthy controls (854.4 ± 241.5 and 217.6 ± 74.2 ng/ml, respectively). Even though serum sE- and sP-selectin in CRF patients did not differ from the control (39.8 ± 21.3 vs. 42.1 ± 18.9 ng/ml and 187.9 ± 66.9 vs. 198.8 ± 62.2 ng/ml, respectively), their levels were increased in HD patients up to 111.9 ± 54.6 and 453.2 ± 231.1 ng/ml in patients prior to HD, 118.7 ± 66.2 and 350.8 ± 114.8 ng/ml during the HD session and then 132.3 ± 61.1 and 368.3 ± 126.6 ng/ml, respectively, after its completion (p < 0.05 in comparison with CRF patients and controls). Conclusions: The increased circulating TNF-α receptors appear more associated with the uremic milieu than HD-related systemic inflammation, whereas increased soluble cellular adhesion molecules in patients undergoing bioincompatible HD may be related to the enhanced systemic inflammation specifically due to maintenance HD.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Endothelial dysfunction in chronic renal failure: roles of lipoprotein oxidation and pro-inflammatory cytokines.

          Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with an increased risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), but the mechanisms responsible are controversial. We investigated the relationship of two sets of candidate mechanisms-indices of LDL oxidation and markers of inflammatory activity-with vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED). We carried out cross-sectional analysis of 23 dialysed and 16 non-dialysed CRF patients, 28 healthy controls, and 20 patients with stable angina and normal renal function. The following were determined: (i) LDL oxidation by Cu(2+) and ultraviolet light, serum autoantibodies to oxidized LDL (oxLDL); (ii) forearm flow-mediated vasodilatation, plasma concentrations of adhesion molecules, and von Willebrand factor (vWF); and (iii) circulating levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen. Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV) was lower in angina, pre-dialysis, and dialysis CRF patients than in controls (all P<0.005). Compared with controls, vWf (P<0.005) and adhesion molecules (vCAM-1, P<0.005; iCAM-1, P=0.01; E-selectin, P=0.05) were raised in dialysis, and vCAM-1 (P=0.01) in pre-dialysis CRF patients. Dialysed patients had lower HDL cholesterol (P=0.01) and higher triglyceride (P=0.05) than controls, but LDL-oxidation was similar in all groups. Autoantibodies to oxLDL were raised in angina (P<0.005) and pre-dialysis (P=0.006), but were absent in most dialysed patients. Concentrations of IL-6, TNF-alpha, CRP and fibrinogen were elevated in CRF compared with control and angina patients (P<0.005). In the whole population, IL-6 and TNF-alpha correlated negatively with EDV, HDL cholesterol, and positively with triglyceride, blood pressure, vWf, iCAM-1, vCAM-1 and E-selectin (r=-0.43 to +0.70, all P<0.05). Endothelial dysfunction is unrelated to LDL oxidation, suggesting that LDL oxidation might not be a major cause of VED in CRF. In contrast VED was more severe in CRF than in angina patients and is associated with increased acute-phase proteins and plasma cytokines, demonstrating a chronic inflammatory state. These observations may explain the VED and increased IHD risk of patients with CRF.
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            Circulating levels of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MCP-1 are increased in haemodialysis patients: association with inflammation, dyslipidaemia, and vascular events.

            Increased levels of circulating adhesion molecules and chemokines have been reported in haemodialysis (HD) patients but the influence of the HD membranes on their secretion, as well as their pathophysiological implications, remains largely unknown. Circulating levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured by immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 81 HD patients (45 male, mean age 57+/-13 years) and 35 normal subjects. All patients had been stabilized on renal replacement therapy for >3 months and were free of active infection. Thirty-three patients (40.7%) were routinely dialysed with modified cellulose membranes and 48 patients (59.3%) were dialysed with polysulfone membranes. Blood samples were taken directly from the arteriovenous fistula immediately before and at the end of a routine HD session. Pre-dialysis levels were significantly elevated in HD patients compared with controls (ICAM-1 515+/-177 vs 238+/-664 ng/ml, P or = 35 mg/dl (2300+/-606 vs 1890+/-633 ng/ml, P<0.005). Log-transformed exact C-reactive protein (CRP) values were significantly correlated with ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels (r=0.41, P<0.005 and r=0.43, P<0.005, respectively). In addition, compared with patients with normal CRP values, patients with elevated CRP had significantly increased levels of ICAM-1 (466+/-166 vs 580+/-172 ng/ml, P<0.005). Patients with cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, or peripheral vascular diseases had significantly increased serum CRP and ICAM-1 levels compared with patients with no evidence of vascular disease (19.2+/-12.9 vs 7.9+/-11.8 mg/l, P<0.001 and 608+/-189 vs 474+/-155 ng/ml, P<0.005 respectively). Serum levels of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MCP-1 are increased in HD patients and probably result from either inadequate clearance or enhanced synthesis and release. HD session resulted in a significant increase of the above molecule levels but the exact mechanism(s) responsible for these alterations are yet to be fully elucidated. Increased levels of adhesion molecules are associated with inflammation, dyslipidaemia, and cardiovascular events. However, the potential link between these processes and its clinical significance warrants further investigation.
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              Impaired renal function is associated with markers of endothelial dysfunction and increased inflammatory activity.

              Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) as well as those with mild renal insufficiency are at increased risk for the development of cardiovascular disease, which cannot be attributed entirely to traditional risk factors. Endothelial dysfunction and chronic inflammatory activity, two important phenomena in atherogenesis, can be found in ESRD. At present, it is unclear whether endothelial dysfunction and chronic inflammatory activity are related to renal function in the pre-dialysis stage. In a cross-sectional, single-centre study, four groups of 20 subjects with renal function ranging from a normal, calculated creatinine clearance (>90 ml/min) to a pre-dialysis situation (<31 ml/min) were investigated. We measured markers of endothelial function [von Willebrand factor (vWf), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and E-selectin (ES)], and markers of inflammatory activity [secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) and C-reactive protein (CRP)]. Using these markers, composite endothelial function and inflammatory activity scores were constructed. Creatinine clearance correlated with the endothelial function score (r=-0.43, P<0.001), the inflammatory activity score (r=-0.53, P<0.05), vWf (r=-0.54, P<0.001), sVCAM-1 (r=-0.50, P<0.001), sPLA(2) (r=-0.28, P<0.05), homocysteine (r=-0.61, P<0.001), age (r=-0.54, P<0.001) and blood pressure (r=-0.44, P<0.001). In multivariate analyses, creatinine clearance was an independent determinant of the endothelial function score (beta=-0.34, P=0.006), plasma vWf (beta=-0.37, P=0.022) and sICAM-1 (beta=-0.33, P=0.012). The relationship of creatinine clearance with sVCAM-1 and endothelial function score was not significant when plasma homocysteine was added to the model. Creatinine clearance was also a determinant of the inflammatory activity score (beta=-0.31, P=0.025) and sPLA(2) (beta=-0.32, P=0.024), although this was no longer significant after correction for systolic blood pressure. Renal dysfunction is associated with markers of endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory activity. Plasma homocysteine may be an intermediate factor in the relationship between endothelial dysfunction and renal function, while blood pressure may modulate the association between inflammatory activity and renal function.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                December 2006
                19 December 2006
                : 26
                : 5
                : 437-444
                a2nd Department of Family Medicine, bDepartment of Pathophysiology and Exercise Immunopathology, cDepartment of Cardiac Surgery, dDepartment of Palliative Medicine, and eDepartment of Pathophysiology and Clinical Immunology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland
                95902 Am J Nephrol 2006;26:437–444
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 25, Pages: 8
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                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research


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