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      Oral Adsorbent AST-120 Ameliorates Interstitial Fibrosis and Transforming Growth Factor-β 1 Expression in Spontaneously Diabetic (OLETF) Rats

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          Abstract

          Diabetic nephropathy is a common cause of end-stage renal disease. The administration of an oral adsorbent, AST-120, prevents the progression of chronic renal failure in uremic rats and undialyzed uremic patients. This study was designed to determine if AST-120 slows the progression of diabetic nephropathy using Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a model of non-insulin-dependent diabetic mellitus. At 21 weeks of age the OLETF rats were divided into 2 groups: AST-120-administered OLETF rats (n = 7), and control OLETF rats (n = 7). LETO rats, which are genetically similar to the OLETF rats but not diabetic, were also included. After the oral administration of AST-120 for 65 weeks, renal function and pathological changes were investigated in the 3 groups. The administration of AST-120 to the OLETF rats attenuated the progression of glomerular sclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, tubular injury as well as renal dysfunction, and reduced the serum and urinary levels of indoxyl sulfate. Furthermore, AST-120 administration reduced the interstitial expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β<sub>1</sub> and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, as well as interstitial infiltration of macrophages. The TGF-β<sub>1</sub>-stained interstitial area showed positive correlations with the interstitial fibrosis area, the number of TIMP-1-positive cells, and the number of macrophages, and showed a negative correlation with creatinine clearance. In conclusion, AST-120 reduced the interstitial expression of TGF-β<sub>1</sub> and TIMP-1, and the interstitial infiltration of macrophages, and ameliorates the progression of diabetic nephropathy in OLETF rats.

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          Most cited references 2

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          Renal disease and hypertension in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

          Recent epidemiologic data demonstrate a dramatic increase in the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), thus dispelling the mistaken belief that renal prognosis is benign in NIDDM. Currently, the leading cause of ESRD in the United States, Japan, and in most industrialized Europe is NIDDM, accounting for nearly 90% of all cases of diabetes. In addition to profound economic costs, patients with NIDDM and diabetic nephropathy have a dramatically increased morbidity and premature mortality. NIDDM-related nephropathy varies widely among racial and ethnic groups, genders and lifestyles; and gender may interact with race to affect the disease progression. While the course of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) progresses through well-defined stages, the natural history of NIDDM is less well characterized. NIDDM patients with coronary heart disease have a higher urinary albumin excretion rate at the time of diagnosis and follow-up. This greater risk may also be associated with hypertension and hyperlipidemia, and genes involved in blood pressure are obvious candidate genes for diabetic nephropathy. Hyperglycemia appears to be an important factor in the development of proteinuria in NIDDM, but its role and the influence of diet are not yet clear. Tobacco smoking can also be deleterious to the diabetic patient, and is also associated with disease progression. Maintaining euglycemia, stopping smoking and controlling blood pressure may prevent or slow the progression of NIDDM-related nephropathy and reduce extrarenal injury. Treatment recommendations include early screening for hyperlipidemia, appropriate exercise and a healthy diet. Cornerstones of management should also include: (1) educating the medical community and more widely disseminating data supporting the value of early treatment of microalbuminuria; (2) developing a comprehensive, multidisciplinary team approach that involves physicians, nurses, diabetes educators and behavioral therapists; and (3) intensifying research in this field.
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            Accumulation of N σ -(Carboxy-methyl)lysine and Changes inGlomerular Extracellular MatrixComponents in Otsuka Long-EvansTokushima Fatty Rat:A Model of Spontaneous NIDDM

            Increases in extracellular matrix (ECM) and changes in its components have been documented in the glomeruli of diabetic nephropathy. Advanced glycation end products formed by glycoxidation have been shown to induce the synthesis of ECM components and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), suggesting that advanced glycation end products may be involved in the etiology of imbalance of ECM components in diabetic glomerulosclerosis. The Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat is an inbred strain that spontaneously develops non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus which progresses to diabetic glomerulosclerosis. N Ε -(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) is known to be formed by glycoxidation. To clarify the involvement of glycoxidation in diabetic nephropathy, we examined the localization of CML, ECM components, and TGF-β 1 in the glomeruli of OLETF rats. The amounts of α 3 (IV) collagen, type VI collagen, and fibronectin were significantly increased in the glomeruli of OLETF rats, whereas the heparan sulfate proteoglycan levels were decreased. After 6 months of age, CML levels were significantly increased in the mesangial area of the glomeruli in these animals. The overexpression of TGF-β 1 preceded the increase in glomerular ECM components. The present study demonstrated that the accumulation of CML precedes the changes of glomerular ECM components in the glomeruli during the course of diabetic nephropathy, suggesting that glycoxidation may be one of the major causes of diabetic glomerulosclerosis.
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              Author and article information

              Journal
              AJN
              Am J Nephrol
              10.1159/issn.0250-8095
              American Journal of Nephrology
              S. Karger AG
              0250-8095
              1421-9670
              2000
              June 2000
              30 June 2000
              : 20
              : 3
              : 232-241
              Affiliations
              Nagoya University Daiko Medical Center, Nagoya, Japan
              Article
              13594 Am J Nephrol 2000;20:232–241
              10.1159/000013594
              10878408
              © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Figures: 2, Tables: 3, References: 37, Pages: 10
              Product
              Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/13594
              Categories
              Laboratory Investigation

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