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      Effect of ultraviolet light on mood, depressive disorders and well-being

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          Most cited references 25

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          Distribution of the vitamin D receptor and 1 alpha-hydroxylase in human brain.

          Despite a growing body of evidence that Vitamin D is involved in mammalian brain functioning, there has been a lack of direct evidence about its role in the human brain. This paper reports, for the first time, the distribution of the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor (VDR), and 1alpha-hydroxylase (1alpha-OHase), the enzyme responsible for the formation of the active vitamin in the human brain. The receptor and the enzyme were found in both neurons and glial cells in a regional and layer-specific pattern. The VDR was restricted to the nucleus whilst 1alpha-OHase was distributed throughout the cytoplasm. The distribution of the VDR in human brain was strikingly similar to that reported in rodents. Many regions contained equivalent amounts of both the VDR and 1alpha-OHase, however the macrocellular cells within the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) and the Purkinje cells in the cerebellum expressed 1alpha-OHase in the absence of VDR. The strongest immunohistochemical staining for both the receptor and enzyme was in the hypothalamus and in the large (presumably dopaminergic) neurons within the substantia nigra. The observed distribution of the VDR is consistent with the proposal that Vitamin D operates in a similar fashion to the known neurosteroids. The widespread distribution of 1alpha-OHase and the VDR suggests that Vitamin D may have autocrine/paracrine properties in the human brain.
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            The cutaneous serotoninergic/melatoninergic system: securing a place under the sun.

            It was recently discovered that mammalian skin can produce serotonin and transform it into melatonin. Pathways for the biosynthesis and biodegradation of serotonin and melatonin have been characterized in human and rodent skin and in their major cellular populations. Moreover, receptors for serotonin and melatonin receptors are expressed in keratinocytes, melanocytes, and fibroblasts and these mediate phenotypic actions on cellular proliferation and differentiation. Melatonin exerts receptor-independent effects, including activation of pathways protective of oxidative stress and the modification of cellular metabolism. While serotonin is known to have several roles in skin-e.g., pro-edema, vasodilatory, proinflammatory, and pruritogenic-melatonin has been experimentally implicated in hair growth cycling, pigmentation physiology, and melanoma control. Thus, the widespread expression of a cutaneous seorotoninergic/melatoninergic syste,m(s) indicates considerable selectivity of action to facilitate intra-, auto-, or paracrine mechanisms that define and influence skin function in a highly compartmentalized manner. Notably, the cutaneous melatoninergic system is organized to respond to continuous stimulation in contrast to the pineal gland, which (being insulated from the external environment) responds to discontinuous activation by the circadian clock. Overall, the cutaneous serotoninergic/melatoninergic system could counteract or buffer external (environmental) or internal stresses to preserve the biological integrity of the organ and to maintain its homeostasis.-Slominski, A. J., Wortsman, J., Tobin, D. J. The cutaneous serotoninergic/melatoninergic system: securing a place under the sun.
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              Light therapy for seasonal and nonseasonal depression: efficacy, protocol, safety, and side effects.

              Bright light therapy for seasonal affective disorder (SAD) has been investigated and applied for over 20 years. Physicians and clinicians are increasingly confident that bright light therapy is a potent, specifically active, nonpharmaceutical treatment modality. Indeed, the domain of light treatment is moving beyond SAD, to nonseasonal depression (unipolar and bipolar), seasonal flare-ups of bulimia nervosa, circadian sleep phase disorders, and more. Light therapy is simple to deliver to outpatients and inpatients alike, although the optimum dosing of light and treatment time of day requires individual adjustment. The side-effect profile is favorable in comparison with medications, although the clinician must remain vigilant about emergent hypomania and autonomic hyperactivation, especially during the first few days of treatment. Importantly, light therapy provides a compatible adjunct to antidepressant medication, which can result in accelerated improvement and fewer residual symptoms.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
                Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed
                Wiley
                09054383
                September 2018
                September 2018
                June 25 2018
                : 34
                : 5
                : 288-297
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Public Health and Primary Care; Leiden University Medical Center; Leiden The Netherlands
                [2 ]Woonzorgcentra Haaglanden; Den Haag The Netherlands
                [3 ]Florence Health and Care; Rijswijk The Netherlands
                Article
                10.1111/phpp.12396
                © 2018

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