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      The Prevalence of Depression and Depressive Symptoms among Eye Disease Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis


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          The prevalence of depression among different eye disease patients varies across studies and has not been systematically reviewed. This study is to provide a summary of the prevalence of depression among eye disease patients. PubMed, Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library were searched from January, 1990 to December, 2015 to identify studies with information on the prevalence of depression among ophthalmic patients. A random/fixed-effects meta-analysis was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of depression among eye disease patients. Heterogeneity was assessed with the I 2 test. 28 studies were selected from 3162 references. The overall pooled prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms with eye disease was 25% (1502/6589 individuals, 95% CI, 0.20–0.30) ranging from 5.4% to 57.0%. Regarding different disease categories, the highest prevalence was revealed for dry eye disease (DED) with 29%, followed by 25% for glaucoma patients, 24% for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients, 23% for cataract patients. The increased pooled prevalence of depression was identified in those with eye diseases compared with healthy controls (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.40–1.81; I 2 = 68.5%). Substantial heterogeneity was identified across most estimates (I 2 > 75%). Further research is needed to identify effective strategies for preventing and treating depression among eye disease patients.

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          Most cited references46

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          A new Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) designed specifically for rating depression in the elderly was tested for reliability and validity and compared with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRS-D) and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). In constructing the GDS a 100-item questionnaire was administered to normal and severely depressed subjects. The 30 questions most highly correlated with the total scores were then selected and readministered to new groups of elderly subjects. These subjects were classified as normal, mildly depressed or severely depressed on the basis of Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for depression. The GDS, HRS-D and SDS were all found to be internally consistent measures, and each of the scales was correlated with the subject's number of RDC symptoms. However, the GDS and the HRS-D were significantly better correlated with RDC symptoms than was the SDS. The authors suggest that the GDS represents a reliable and valid self-rating depression screening scale for elderly populations.
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              The initial Global Burden of Disease study found that depression was the fourth leading cause of disease burden, accounting for 3.7% of total disability adjusted life years (DALYs) in the world in 1990. To present the new estimates of depression burden for the year 2000. DALYs for depressive disorders in each world region were calculated, based on new estimates of mortality, prevalence, incidence, average age at onset, duration and disability severity. Depression is the fourth leading cause of disease burden, accounting for 4.4% of total DALYs in the year 2000, and it causes the largest amount of non-fatal burden, accounting for almost 12% of all total years lived with disability worldwide. These data on the burden of depression worldwide represent a major public health problem that affects patients and society.

                Author and article information

                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                12 April 2017
                : 7
                [1 ]State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University , Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510060, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Copyright © 2017, The Author(s)

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                : 23 June 2016
                : 20 March 2017



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