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Genome-based Proteomic Analysis of Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden Sclerotium

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      Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden (Polyporales, Basidiomycota), also known as the tiger milk mushroom, has received much interest in recent years owing to its wide-range ethnobotanical uses and the recent success in its domestication. The sclerotium is the part with medicinal value. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry analysis, a total of 16 non-redundant, major proteins were identified with high confidence level in L. rhinocerotis sclerotium based on its genome as custom mapping database. Some of these proteins, such as the putative lectins, immunomodulatory proteins, superoxide dismutase, and aegerolysin may have pharmaceutical potential; while others are involved in nutrient mobilization and the protective antioxidant mechanism in the sclerotium. The findings from this study provide a molecular basis for future research on potential pharmacologically active proteins of L. rhinocerotis.

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      Most cited references 42

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      An improved procedure for staining of proteins following separation in polyacrylamide gels is described which utilizes the colloidal properties of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 and R-250. The new method is based on addition of 20% v/v methanol and higher concentrations of ammonium sulfate to the staining solution previously described. The method combines the advantage of much shorter staining time with high sensitivity, a clear background not requiring destaining, stepwise staining, and stable fixation after staining. The method has been applied to staining of polyacrylamide gels after sodium dodecyl sulfate-electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing in carrier ampholyte-generated pH gradients.
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          14-3-3 proteins: key regulators of cell division, signalling and apoptosis.

          The 14-3-3 proteins constitute a family of conserved proteins present in all eukaryotic organisms so far investigated. These proteins have attracted interest because they are involved in important cellular processes such as signal transduction, cell-cycle control, apoptosis, stress response and malignant transformation and because at least 100 different binding partners for the 14-3-3 proteins have been reported. Although the exact function of 14-3-3 proteins is still unknown, they are known to (1) act as adaptor molecules stimulating protein-protein interactions, (2) regulate the subcellular localisation of proteins and (3) activate or inhibit enzymes. In this review, we discuss the role of the 14-3-3 proteins in three cellular processes: cell cycle control, signal transduction and apoptosis. These processes are regulated by the 14-3-3 proteins at multiple steps. The 14-3-3 proteins have an overall inhibitory effect on cell cycle progression and apoptosis, whereas in signal transduction they may act as stimulatory or inhibitory factors. This article contains supplementary material which may be viewed at the BioEssays website at Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

            Author and article information

            1. Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia;
            2. Ligno Biotech Sdn. Bhd., 43300 Balakong Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.
            Author notes
            ✉ Corresponding author: yean_ny_nie@ .

            Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interest exists.

            Int J Med Sci
            Int J Med Sci
            International Journal of Medical Sciences
            Ivyspring International Publisher (Sydney )
            1 January 2015
            : 12
            : 1
            : 23-31
            4278872 10.7150/ijms.10019 ijmsv12p0023
            © Ivyspring International Publisher. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons License ( Reproduction is permitted for personal, noncommercial use, provided that the article is in whole, unmodified, and properly cited.
            Research Paper


            maldi-ms, proteins., lc-ms, lignosus rhinocerotis, proteomic analysis


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