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      Evaluation of miglustat as maintenance therapy after enzyme therapy in adults with stable type 1 Gaucher disease: a prospective, open-label non-inferiority study

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          Abstract

          Background

          Previous studies have provided equivocal data on the use of miglustat as maintenance therapy in Gaucher disease type 1. We report findings from a clinical trial evaluating the effects of miglustat treatment in patients with stable type 1 Gaucher disease after enzyme therapy.

          Methods

          Adult type 1 Gaucher disease patients stabilized during at least 3 years of previous enzyme therapy were included in this 2-year, prospective, open-label non-inferiority study. The primary endpoint was percent change from baseline in liver volume. Secondary endpoints included changes in spleen volume, hemoglobin concentration and platelet count.

          Results

          Forty-two patients were enrolled (mean±SD age, 45.1±12.7 years; previous enzyme therapy duration 9.5±4.0 years). Median (range) exposure to miglustat 100 mg t.i.d. was 658 (3–765) days. Twenty-one patients discontinued treatment prematurely; 13 due to adverse events, principally gastrointestinal. The upper 95% confidence limit of mean percent change in liver volume from baseline to end of treatment was below the non-inferiority margin of 10% (–1.1%; 95%CI −6.0, 3.9%). Mean (95%CI) changes in spleen volume, hemoglobin concentration and platelet count were 102 (24,180) mL, –0.95 (−1.38, –0.53) g/dL and −44.1 (–57.6, –30.7) ×10 9/L, respectively.

          Conclusions

          The primary efficacy endpoint was met; overall there was no change in liver volume during 24 months of miglustat therapy. Several patients showed a gradual deterioration in some disease manifestations, suggesting that miglustat could maintain clinical stability, but not in all patients. Miglustat demonstrated a predictable profile of safety and tolerability that was consistent with that reported in previous clinical trials and experience in clinical practice.

          Trial registration

          Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00319046

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          Most cited references 32

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            Novel oral treatment of Gaucher's disease with N-butyldeoxynojirimycin (OGT 918) to decrease substrate biosynthesis.

            Current treatment for Gaucher's disease involves administration of intravenous glucocerebrosidase to degrade glucocerebroside stored in lysosomes. Lowering the rate of biosynthesis of glucocerebroside should decrease accumulation of this substrate. We investigated the safety and efficacy of OGT 918 (N-butyldeoxynojirimycin), an inhibitor of glucosyltransferase, as a novel oral treatment for non-neuronopathic Gaucher's disease. We recruited, into a 1-year open-label study, 28 adults (seven with previous splenectomies) from four national Gaucher's referral clinics, who were unable or unwilling to receive enzyme treatment. We measured liver and spleen volume by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and at months 6 and 12, and biochemical and haematological variables monthly, including chitotriosidase activity (a sensitive marker of Gaucher's disease activity). Patients were started on 100 mg oral OGT 918 three times daily. Baseline liver volumes were 1.1-2.7 times normal and spleen volumes 5.1-24.8 times normal. At 12 months, mean liver and spleen volumes were significantly lowered by 12% (95% CI 7.8-16.4) and 19% (14.3-23.7), respectively (each p<0.001). Haematological variables improved slightly. Mean organ volume and blood counts improved continually between 6 months and 12 months of treatment. Mean chitotriosidase concentrations fell by 16.4% over 12 months (p<.0001). Six patients withdrew because of gastrointestinal complaints (two), personal reasons (two), or severe pre-existing disease (two). The most frequent adverse effect was diarrhoea, which occurred in 79% of patients shortly after the start of treatment. Decrease of substrate formation by OGT 918 improves key clinical features of non-neuronopathic Gaucher's disease. The strategy justifies further trials in this and other glycosphingolipid storage disorders.
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              The Gaucher registry: demographics and disease characteristics of 1698 patients with Gaucher disease.

              The Gaucher Registry, the largest database of patients with Gaucher disease (GD) worldwide, was initiated to better delineate the progressive nature of the disorder and determine optimal therapy. This report describes the demographic and clinical characteristics of 1698 patients with GD before they received enzyme replacement therapy. Physicians worldwide who treat patients with GD were invited to submit prospective and retrospective data for an ongoing registry, using standardized data collection forms, for central processing and review. Most patients were from the United States (45%) and Israel (17%), but patients are from 38 countries. Most (94%) had type 1 GD, fewer than 1% had type 2, and 5% had type 3. Mutant allele frequency data, available for 45% of patients, showed the most common alleles to be N370S (53%), L444P (18%), 84GG (7%), and IVS2+1 (2%). Twenty-five percent of L444P homozygotes (13 of 52 patients) had type 1 GD phenotype. Mean age at diagnosis in patients with the N370S/N370S genotype was 27.2 years (SD, 19.7 years); in L444P/L444P patients, 2. 3 years (SD, 3.2 years). Histories of bone pain and radiological bone disease were reported by 63% and 94% of patients, respectively; both were more likely in asplenic patients than in patients with spleens. Mean spleen and liver volumes were 19.8 and 2.0 multiples of normal, respectively. Anemia and thrombocytopenia were present in 64% and 56%, respectively. Thrombocytopenia was present in 13% of asplenic patients. The Gaucher Registry permits a comprehensive understanding of the clinical spectrum of GD because of the uniquely large sample size. The Registry will be useful in evaluating the effects of specific therapies in GD and the possible influences of environment, ethnicity, and genotype on the natural history of the disorder.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Orphanet J Rare Dis
                Orphanet J Rare Dis
                Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
                BioMed Central
                1750-1172
                2012
                27 December 2012
                : 7
                : 102
                Affiliations
                [1 ]University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK
                [2 ]Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
                [3 ]Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                [4 ]Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Allschwil, Switzerland
                [5 ]Child Development and Rehabilitation Center/Doernbecher Children’s Hospital, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA
                Article
                1750-1172-7-102
                10.1186/1750-1172-7-102
                3552937
                23270487
                Copyright ©2012 Cox et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research

                Infectious disease & Microbiology

                gaucher disease, miglustat, enzyme therapy, maintenance, efficacy, safety

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