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      Anti-Obesity and Anti-Hyperglycemic Effects of Meretrix lusoria Protamex Hydrolysate in ob/ob Mice

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      International Journal of Molecular Sciences
      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          Meretrix lusoria (M. lusoria) is an economically important shellfish which is widely distributed in South Eastern Asia that contains bioactive peptides, proteins, and enzymes. In the present study, the extracted meat content of M. lusoria was enzymatic hydrolyzed using four different commercial proteases (neutrase, protamex, alcalase, and flavourzyme). Among the enzymatic hydrolysates, M. lusoria protamex hydrolysate (MLPH) fraction with MW ≤ 1 kDa exhibited the highest free radical scavenging ability. The MLPH fraction was further purified and an amino acid sequence (KDLEL, 617.35 Da) was identified by LC-MS/MS analysis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycemic effects of MLPH containing antioxidant peptides using ob/ob mice. Treatment with MLPH for 6 weeks reduced body and organ weight and ameliorated the effects of hepatic steatosis and epididymal fat, including a constructive effect on hepatic and serum marker parameters. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities were upregulated and impaired glucose tolerance was improved in obese control mice. In addition, MLPH treatment markedly suppressed mRNA expression related to lipogenesis and hyperglycemia through activation of AMPK phosphorylation. These findings suggest that MLPH has anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycemic potential and could be effectively applied as a functional food ingredient or pharmaceutical.

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              Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome.

              Obesity is a principal causative factor in the development of metabolic syndrome. Here we report that increased oxidative stress in accumulated fat is an important pathogenic mechanism of obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Fat accumulation correlated with systemic oxidative stress in humans and mice. Production of ROS increased selectively in adipose tissue of obese mice, accompanied by augmented expression of NADPH oxidase and decreased expression of antioxidative enzymes. In cultured adipocytes, elevated levels of fatty acids increased oxidative stress via NADPH oxidase activation, and oxidative stress caused dysregulated production of adipocytokines (fat-derived hormones), including adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, IL-6, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Finally, in obese mice, treatment with NADPH oxidase inhibitor reduced ROS production in adipose tissue, attenuated the dysregulation of adipocytokines, and improved diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hepatic steatosis. Collectively, our results suggest that increased oxidative stress in accumulated fat is an early instigator of metabolic syndrome and that the redox state in adipose tissue is a potentially useful therapeutic target for obesity-associated metabolic syndrome.
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                Author and article information

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                Journal
                IJMCFK
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                IJMS
                MDPI AG
                1422-0067
                April 2022
                April 05 2022
                : 23
                : 7
                : 4015
                Article
                10.3390/ijms23074015
                10264df2-1d96-4cba-8db0-d2f0f027f02d
                © 2022

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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