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      Associations between Body Mass Index and Visual Impairment of School Students in Central China

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          Body Mass Index (BMI) is a risk indicator for some eye diseases. However, the association between BMI and Visual Impairment (VI) was not quite certain in Chinese students. Our aim was to assess the relationship between BMI and VI with a cross-sectional study. A total of 3771 students aged 6–21 years, including 729 with VI, were sampled from 24 schools in Huangpi District of central China to participate in the study. A multistage stratified cluster random sampling was adopted. Each of the students answered a questionnaire and had physical and eye examinations. The association between BMI and VI was examined with logistic regression and threshold effect analysis. The prevalence of VI was 19.33% (729/3771). Compared to normal and underweight, overweight/obese students showed a stronger relation with VI in age- and sex-adjusted (Odds Ratio (OR) = 16.16, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 12.37–21.09, p < 0.001) and multivariable models (OR = 8.32, 95% CI: 6.13–11.30, p < 0.001). There was a nonlinear dose–response relation between levels of BMI and the prevalence of VI ( p < 0.001). A high level of BMI (≥19.81 kg/m 2) was associated with a higher VI prevalence (adjusted OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.15–1.25, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the study demonstrated BMI levels were significantly associated with the prevalence of VI.

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          Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association.

          In 1995 the American College of Sports Medicine and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published national guidelines on Physical Activity and Public Health. The Committee on Exercise and Cardiac Rehabilitation of the American Heart Association endorsed and supported these recommendations. The purpose of the present report is to update and clarify the 1995 recommendations on the types and amounts of physical activity needed by healthy adults to improve and maintain health. Development of this document was by an expert panel of scientists, including physicians, epidemiologists, exercise scientists, and public health specialists. This panel reviewed advances in pertinent physiologic, epidemiologic, and clinical scientific data, including primary research articles and reviews published since the original recommendation was issued in 1995. Issues considered by the panel included new scientific evidence relating physical activity to health, physical activity recommendations by various organizations in the interim, and communications issues. Key points related to updating the physical activity recommendation were outlined and writing groups were formed. A draft manuscript was prepared and circulated for review to the expert panel as well as to outside experts. Comments were integrated into the final recommendation. To promote and maintain health, all healthy adults aged 18 to 65 yr need moderate-intensity aerobic (endurance) physical activity for a minimum of 30 min on five days each week or vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity for a minimum of 20 min on three days each week. [I (A)] Combinations of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity can be performed to meet this recommendation. [IIa (B)] For example, a person can meet the recommendation by walking briskly for 30 min twice during the week and then jogging for 20 min on two other days. Moderate-intensity aerobic activity, which is generally equivalent to a brisk walk and noticeably accelerates the heart rate, can be accumulated toward the 30-min minimum by performing bouts each lasting 10 or more minutes. [I (B)] Vigorous-intensity activity is exemplified by jogging, and causes rapid breathing and a substantial increase in heart rate. In addition, every adult should perform activities that maintain or increase muscular strength and endurance a minimum of two days each week. [IIa (A)] Because of the dose-response relation between physical activity and health, persons who wish to further improve their personal fitness, reduce their risk for chronic diseases and disabilities or prevent unhealthy weight gain may benefit by exceeding the minimum recommended amounts of physical activity. [I (A)].
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            Global estimates of visual impairment: 2010.

            From the most recent data the magnitude of visual impairment and its causes in 2010 have been estimated, globally and by WHO region. The definitions of visual impairment are the current definitions of presenting vision in the International Classification of Diseases version 10. A systematic review was conducted of published and unpublished surveys from 2000 to the present. For countries without data on visual impairment, estimates were based on newly developed imputation methods that took into account country economic status as proxy. Surveys from 39 countries satisfied the inclusion criteria for this study. Globally, the number of people of all ages visually impaired is estimated to be 285 million, of whom 39 million are blind, with uncertainties of 10-20%. People 50 years and older represent 65% and 82% of visually impaired and blind, respectively. The major causes of visual impairment are uncorrected refractive errors (43%) followed by cataract (33%); the first cause of blindness is cataract (51%). This study indicates that visual impairment in 2010 is a major health issue that is unequally distributed among the WHO regions; the preventable causes are as high as 80% of the total global burden.
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              Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002.

              This paper presents estimates of the prevalence of visual impairment and its causes in 2002, based on the best available evidence derived from recent studies. Estimates were determined from data on low vision and blindness as defined in the International statistical classification of diseases, injuries and causes of death, 10th revision. The number of people with visual impairment worldwide in 2002 was in excess of 161 million, of whom about 37 million were blind. The burden of visual impairment is not distributed uniformly throughout the world: the least developed regions carry the largest share. Visual impairment is also unequally distributed across age groups, being largely confined to adults 50 years of age and older. A distribution imbalance is also found with regard to gender throughout the world: females have a significantly higher risk of having visual impairment than males. Notwithstanding the progress in surgical intervention that has been made in many countries over the last few decades, cataract remains the leading cause of visual impairment in all regions of the world, except in the most developed countries. Other major causes of visual impairment are, in order of importance, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and trachoma.

                Author and article information

                [1 ]Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, 115# Donghu Road, Wuhan 430071, China; 2014103050005@ (F.Y.); 2013203050013@ (Y.L.); 2013103050008@ (B.L.); 2014103050004@ (X.G.)
                [2 ]College of Nursing, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, 1# Huangjiahu West Road, Wuhan 430061, China
                [3 ]Research Support Center, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA; chongming_yang@
                [4 ]Teenagers Vision Prevention and Control Center, Huangpi District People’s Hospital, 259# Baixiu Street, Wuhan 4300300, China; yf_20062007@
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: txd_20062007@ ; Tel.: +86-27-6875-8591
                Role: Academic Editor
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                18 October 2016
                October 2016
                : 13
                : 10
                27763567 5086763 10.3390/ijerph13101024 ijerph-13-01024
                © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license (


                Public health

                visual impairment, obesity, body mass index


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