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Increased Risk of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation Episodes Associated with Acute Increases in Ambient Air Pollution

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      Abstract

      O bjectives: We reported previously that 24-hr moving average ambient air pollution concentrations were positively associated with ventricular arrhythmias detected by implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). ICDs also detect paroxysmal atrial fibrillation episodes (PAF) that result in rapid ventricular rates. In this same cohort of ICD patients, we assessed the association between ambient air pollution and episodes of PAF.

      D esign: We performed a case–crossover study.

      P articipants: Patients who lived in the Boston, Massachusetts, metropolitan area and who had ICDs implanted between June 1995 and December 1999 ( n = 203) were followed until July 2002.

      E valuations/M easurements: We used conditional logistic regression to explore the association between community air pollution and 91 electrophysiologist-confirmed episodes of PAF among 29 subjects.

      R esults: We found a statistically significant positive association between episodes of PAF and increased ozone concentration (22 ppb) in the hour before the arrhythmia (odds ratio = 2.08; 95% confidence interval = 1.22, 3.54; p = 0.001). The risk estimate for a longer (24-hr) moving average was smaller, thus suggesting an immediate effect. Positive but not statistically significant risks were associated with fine particles, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon.

      C onclusions: Increased ambient O 3 pollution was associated with increased risk of episodes of rapid ventricular response due to PAF, thereby suggesting that community air pollution may be a precipitant of these events.

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      Most cited references 22

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      Prevalence of diagnosed atrial fibrillation in adults: national implications for rhythm management and stroke prevention: the AnTicoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation (ATRIA) Study.

      Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia in elderly persons and a potent risk factor for stroke. However, recent prevalence and projected future numbers of persons with atrial fibrillation are not well described. To estimate prevalence of atrial fibrillation and US national projections of the numbers of persons with atrial fibrillation through the year 2050. Cross-sectional study of adults aged 20 years or older who were enrolled in a large health maintenance organization in California and who had atrial fibrillation diagnosed between July 1, 1996, and December 31, 1997. Prevalence of atrial fibrillation in the study population of 1.89 million; projected number of persons in the United States with atrial fibrillation between 1995-2050. A total of 17 974 adults with diagnosed atrial fibrillation were identified during the study period; 45% were aged 75 years or older. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation was 0.95% (95% confidence interval, 0.94%-0.96%). Atrial fibrillation was more common in men than in women (1.1% vs 0.8%; P<.001). Prevalence increased from 0.1% among adults younger than 55 years to 9.0% in persons aged 80 years or older. Among persons aged 50 years or older, prevalence of atrial fibrillation was higher in whites than in blacks (2.2% vs 1.5%; P<.001). We estimate approximately 2.3 million US adults currently have atrial fibrillation. We project that this will increase to more than 5.6 million (lower bound, 5.0; upper bound, 6.3) by the year 2050, with more than 50% of affected individuals aged 80 years or older. Our study confirms that atrial fibrillation is common among older adults and provides a contemporary basis for estimates of prevalence in the United States. The number of patients with atrial fibrillation is likely to increase 2.5-fold during the next 50 years, reflecting the growing proportion of elderly individuals. Coordinated efforts are needed to face the increasing challenge of optimal stroke prevention and rhythm management in patients with atrial fibrillation.
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        Impact of atrial fibrillation on the risk of death: the Framingham Heart Study.

        Atrial fibrillation (AF) causes substantial morbidity. It is uncertain whether AF is associated with excess mortality independent of associated cardiac conditions and risk factors. We examined the mortality of subjects 55 to 94 years of age who developed AF during 40 years of follow-up of the original Framingham Heart Study cohort. Of the original 5209 subjects, 296 men and 325 women (mean ages, 74 and 76 years, respectively) developed AF and met eligibility criteria. By pooled logistic regression, after adjustment for age, hypertension, smoking, diabetes, left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, valvular heart disease, and stroke or transient ischemic attack, AF was associated with an OR for death of 1.5 (95% CI, 1.2 to 1.8) in men and 1.9 (95% CI, 1.5 to 2.2) in women. The risk of mortality conferred by AF did not significantly vary by age. However, there was a significant AF-sex interaction: AF diminished the female advantage in survival. In secondary multivariate analyses, in subjects free of valvular heart disease and preexisting cardiovascular disease, AF remained significantly associated with excess mortality, with about a doubling of mortality in both sexes. In subjects from the original cohort of the Framingham Heart Study, AF was associated with a 1.5- to 1.9-fold mortality risk after adjustment for the preexisting cardiovascular conditions with which AF was related. The decreased survival seen with AF was present in men and women and across a wide range of ages.
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          The case-crossover design: a method for studying transient effects on the risk of acute events.

           M Maclure (1991)
          A case-control design involving only cases may be used when brief exposure causes a transient change in risk of a rare acute-onset disease. The design resembles a retrospective nonrandomized crossover study but differs in having only a sample of the base population-time. The average incidence rate ratio for a hypothesized effect period following the exposure is estimable using the Mantel-Haenszel estimator. The duration of the effect period is assumed to be that which maximizes the rate ratio estimate. Self-matching of cases eliminates the threat of control-selection bias and increases efficiency. Pilot data from a study of myocardial infarction onset illustrate the control of within-individual confounding due to temporal association of exposures.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
            [2 ]Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
            [3 ]Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
            [4 ]New England Medical Center, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
            [5 ]Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
            [6 ]Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
            [7 ]Department of Biostatistical Science, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
            Author notes
            Address correspondence to D.W. Dockery, Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health, Landmark Suite 415 West; 401 Park Dr., Boston, MA 02115 USA. Telephone: (617) 384-8741. Fax: (617) 384-8745. E-mail: ddockery@hsph.harvard.edu

            The authors declare they have no competing financial interests.

            Journal
            Environ Health Perspect
            Environmental Health Perspectives
            National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
            0091-6765
            January 2006
            20 September 2005
            : 114
            : 1
            : 120-123
            1332666
            10.1289/ehp.8371
            ehp0114-000120
            16393668
            This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original DOI.
            Categories
            Research
            Environmental Medicine

            Public health

            fibrillation, ozone, case—crossover, arrhythmias, epidemiology, air pollution

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