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      The Complex World of Regulation of Pituitary Growth Hormone Secretion: The Role of Ghrelin, Klotho, and Nesfatins in It

      Frontiers in Endocrinology

      Frontiers Media S.A.

      growth hormone, IGF-I, GHRH, somatostatin, ghrelin, klotho, nesfatins

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          Abstract

          The classic concept of how pituitary GH is regulated by somatostatin and GHRH has changed in recent years, following the discovery of peripheral hormones involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis and mineral homeostasis. These hormones are ghrelin, nesfatins, and klotho. Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone, released primarily by the gastric mucosa, although it is widely expressed in many different tissues, including the central nervous system and the pituitary. To be active, ghrelin must bind to an n-octanoyl group (n = 8, generally) on serine 3, forming acyl ghrelin which can then bind and activate a G-protein-coupled receptor leading to phospholipase C activation that induces the formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol that produce an increase in cytosolic calcium that allows the release of GH. In addition to its direct action on somatotrophs, ghrelin co-localizes with GHRH in several neurons, facilitating its release by inhibiting somatostatin, and acts synergistically with GHRH stimulating the synthesis and secretion of pituitary GH. Gastric ghrelin production declines with age, as does GH. Klotho is an anti-aging agent, produced mainly in the kidneys, whose soluble circulating form directly induces GH secretion through the activation of ERK1/2 and inhibits the inhibitory effect that IGF-I exerts on GH. Children and adults with untreated GH-deficiency show reduced plasma levels of klotho, but treatment with GH restores them to normal values. Deletions or mutations of the Klotho gene affect GH production. Nesfatins 1 and 2 are satiety hormones, they inhibit food intake. They have been found in GH3 cell cultures where they significantly reduce the expression of gh mRNA and that of pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1, consequently acting as inhibitors of GH production. This is a consequence of the down-regulation of the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway. Interestingly, nesfatins eliminate the strong positive effect that ghrelin has on GH synthesis and secretion. Throughout this review, we will attempt to broadly analyze the role of these hormones in the complex world of GH regulation, a world in which these hormones already play a very important role.

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          Most cited references 120

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          A receptor in pituitary and hypothalamus that functions in growth hormone release.

          Small synthetic molecules termed growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs) act on the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus to stimulate and amplify pulsatile growth hormone (GH) release. A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor (GPC-R) of the pituitary and arcuate ventro-medial and infundibular hypothalamus of swine and humans was cloned and was shown to be the target of the GHSs. On the basis of its pharmacological and molecular characterization, this GPC-R defines a neuroendocrine pathway for the control of pulsatile GH release and supports the notion that the GHSs mimic an undiscovered hormone.
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            Ghrelin octanoylation mediated by an orphan lipid transferase.

            The peptide hormone ghrelin is the only known protein modified with an O-linked octanoyl side group, which occurs on its third serine residue. This modification is crucial for ghrelin's physiological effects including regulation of feeding, adiposity, and insulin secretion. Despite the crucial role for octanoylation in the physiology of ghrelin, the lipid transferase that mediates this novel modification has remained unknown. Here we report the identification and characterization of human GOAT, the ghrelin O-acyl transferase. GOAT is a conserved orphan membrane-bound O-acyl transferase (MBOAT) that specifically octanoylates serine-3 of the ghrelin peptide. Transcripts for both GOAT and ghrelin occur predominantly in stomach and pancreas. GOAT is conserved across vertebrates, and genetic disruption of the GOAT gene in mice leads to complete absence of acylated ghrelin in circulation. The occurrence of ghrelin and GOAT in stomach and pancreas tissues demonstrates the relevance of GOAT in the acylation of ghrelin and further implicates acylated ghrelin in pancreatic function.
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              Ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin: two major forms of rat ghrelin peptide in gastrointestinal tissue.

              Ghrelin, a novel peptide purified from stomach, is the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor and has potent growth hormone-releasing activity. The Ser3 residue of ghrelin is modified by n-octanoic acid, a modification necessary for hormonal activity. We established two ghrelin-specific radioimmunoassays; one recognizes the octanoyl-modified portion and another the C-terminal portion of ghrelin. Using these radioimmunoassay systems, we found that two major molecular forms exist-ghrelin and des-n-octanoyl ghrelin. While ghrelin activates growth-hormone secretagogue (GHS) receptor-expressing cells, the nonmodified des-n-octanyl form of ghrelin, designated as des-acyl ghrelin, does not. In addition to these findings, our radioimmunoassay systems also revealed high concentrations of ghrelin in the stomach and small intestine.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front. Endocrinol.
                Frontiers in Endocrinology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-2392
                11 March 2021
                2021
                : 12
                Affiliations
                Scientific and Medical Direction, Medical Center Foltra , Teo, Spain
                Author notes

                Edited by: Antonio Mancini, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy

                Reviewed by: Vera Chesnokova, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, United States; Carolina Di Somma, University of Naples Federico II, Italy

                *Correspondence: Jesús Devesa, jesus.devesa@ 123456usc.es

                This article was submitted to Pituitary Endocrinology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Endocrinology

                Article
                10.3389/fendo.2021.636403
                7991839
                Copyright © 2021 Devesa

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 9, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 121, Pages: 16, Words: 7929
                Categories
                Endocrinology
                Systematic Review

                Endocrinology & Diabetes

                growth hormone, igf-i, ghrh, somatostatin, ghrelin, klotho, nesfatins

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