Anaemia is a common consequence of chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, the risk factors for its development and its impact on outcomes have not been well synthesised. Therefore, we undertook a systematic review to fully characterise the risk factors associated with the presence of anaemia in patients with CKD and a contemporary synthesis of the risks of adverse outcomes in patients with CKD and anaemia. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from 2002 until 2018 for studies reporting the incidence or prevalence of anaemia and associated risk factors and/or associations between haemoglobin (Hb) or anaemia and mortality, major adverse cardiac events (MACE), hospitalisation, or CKD progression in adult patients with CKD. Extracted data were summarised as risk factors related to the incidence or prevalence of anaemia or the risk (hazard ratio (HR)) of outcome by Hb level (<10, 10–12, >12 g/dL) in patients not on dialysis and in those receiving dialysis. 191 studies met the predefined inclusion criteria. The risk factor most associated with the prevalence of anaemia was CKD stage, followed by age and sex. Mean HRs (95% CI) for all-cause mortality in patients with CKD on dialysis with Hb <10, 10–12, and >12 g/dL were 1.56 (1.43–1.71), 1.17 (1.09–1.26), and 0.91 (0.87–0.96), respectively. Similar patterns were observed for nondialysis patients and for the risks of hospitalisation, MACE, and CKD progression. This is the first known systematic review to quantify the risk of adverse clinical outcomes based on Hb level in patients with CKD. Anaemia was consistently associated with greater mortality, hospitalisation, MACE, and CKD progression in patients with CKD, and risk increased with anaemia severity. Effective treatments that not only treat the anaemia but also reduce the risk of adverse clinical outcomes are essential to help reduce the burden of anaemia and its management in CKD.