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      Feasibility and outcome of haploidentical SCT in pediatric high-risk hematologic malignancies and Fanconi anemia in Uruguay

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          Abstract

          In total, 17 pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies (n=14) and Fanconi anemia (FA) (n=3) underwent haploidentical SCT with T-cell depletion. The patients were conditioned with reduced-intensity regimens, and CYA was used for GVHD prophylaxis. Successful engraftment occurred in 16 patients (94%). One patient failed to achieve a primary engraftment. Another patient rejected the first SCT after 10 weeks and had a successful second transplant. Of all engrafted patients, only one developed severe acute GVHD. Ten patients were alive at a median follow-up of 18 months (range, 5-62 months). The 5-years' OS was 53.8%. The three patients with FA are currently well with full-donor chimerism at 16, 6 and 5 months post transplant, respectively. The OS of 14 patients with high-risk hematologic malignancies was 47.6%. Three patients died as a result of post transplant leukemia relapse. CMV infection, GVHD and organ injury were other causes of mortality. Haploidentical SCT was found to be an alternative feasible treatment in Uruguay for patients who need allogenic transplantation but lack an HLA-identical family donor. It should be considered as an early option in FA patients before transformation or significant exposure to blood products.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Survival after T cell-depleted haploidentical stem cell transplantation is improved using the mother as donor.

          We hypothesized that transplacental leukocyte trafficking during pregnancy, which induces long-term, stable, reciprocal microchimerism in mother and child, might influence outcome of patients with acute leukemia given parental donor haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We analyzed the outcome of 118 patients who received transplants for acute leukemia in 2 centers. Patients received highly T cell-depleted haploidentical grafts after myelo-ablative conditioning. Five-year event-free survival was better in patients who received transplants from the mother than from the father (50.6% +/- 7.6% vs 11.1% +/- 4.2%; P < .001). Better survival was the result of both reduced incidence of relapse and transplantation-related mortality. The protective effect was seen in both female and male recipients, in both lymphoid and myeloid diseases; it was more evident in patients receiving transplants in remission than in chemotherapy-resistant relapse. Incidences of rejection and acute graft-versus-host disease were not significantly influenced. Multivariate analysis confirmed donor sex in parental donor transplantation as an independent prognostic factor for survival (hazard ratio, father vs mother = 2.36; P = .003). In contrast, in a control cohort of patients who received transplants from haploidentical siblings, donor sex had no influence on outcome. Although obtained in a retrospective analysis, these data suggest that the mother of the patient should be preferred as donor for haploidentical HSCT.
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            Results and factors influencing outcome after fully haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with very high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia: impact of center size: an analysis on behalf of the Acute Leukemia and Pediatric Disease Working Parties of the European Blood and Marrow Transplant group.

            T cell-depleted haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haploHSCT) is an option to treat children with very high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) lacking an HLA-identical donor. We analyzed 127 children with ALL who underwent haploHSCT in first (n = 22), second (n = 48), or third (n = 32), complete remission or in relapse (n = 25). The 5-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) was 30%, 34%, 22%, and 0%, respectively. A risk-factor analysis was performed for patients who underwent transplantation in remission (n = 102). Five-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse incidence (RI), and LFS were 37%, 36%, and 27%, respectively. A trend of improved LFS rate and decreased RI was observed for children given a graft with higher number of CD34(+) cells (adjusted P = .09 and P = .07, respectively). In a multivariate analysis, haploHSCT performed in larger centers (performing > or = 231 allotransplantations in the studied period) was associated with improved LFS rate and decreased RI (adjusted P = .01 and P = .04, respectively), adjusting for different patient-, disease-, and transplant-related factors such as number of previous autotransplantations, cytomegalovirus serology status, type of T-cell depletion, and use of total body irradiation and antithymocyte globulin. In conclusion, higher CD34(+) cell dose and better patient selection may improve outcomes of children with ALL who undergo a haploHSCT. Transplant centers initiating programs on haploHSCT for children may collaborate with more experienced centers.
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              Megadose transplantation of purified peripheral blood CD34(+) progenitor cells from HLA-mismatched parental donors in children.

              We performed HLA-mismatched stem cell transplantation with megadoses of purified positively selected mobilized peripheral blood CD34(+) progenitor cells (PBPC) from related adult donors in 39 children lacking an otherwise suitable donor. The patients received a mean number of 20.7 +/- 9.8 x 10(6)/kg purified CD34(+) and a mean number of 15.5 +/- 20.4 x 10(3)/kg CD3(+) T lymphocytes. The first seven patients received short term (<4 weeks) GVHD prophylaxis with cyclosporin A, whereas in all the following 32 patients no GVHD prophylaxis was used. In 38 evaluable patients, five patients experienced primary acute GVHD grade I and one patient grade II. In 32 patients, no signs of primary GVHD were seen and GVHD only occurred after T cell add backs. T cell reconstitution was more rapid if the number of transplanted CD34(+) cells exceeded 20 x 10(6)/kg. Of the 39 patients, 15 are alive and well, 13 died due to relapse and 10 transplant-related deaths occurred. We conclude that the HLA barrier can be overcome by transplantation of megadoses of highly purified mismatched CD34(+) stem cells. GVHD can be prevented without pharmacological immunosuppression by the efficient T cell depletion associated with the CD34(+) positive selection procedure. This approach offers a promising therapeutic option for every child without an otherwise suitable donor.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Bone Marrow Transplantation
                Bone Marrow Transplant
                Springer Nature
                0268-3369
                1476-5365
                May 2012
                July 18 2011
                May 2012
                : 47
                : 5
                : 663-668
                Article
                10.1038/bmt.2011.148
                21765479
                © 2012

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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