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      Stenotrophomonas maltophilia a new biocontrol agent against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)


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          ABSTRACT Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera; Bruchidae) is one of the most important storage pests, especially in legumes, which causes significant damage in many parts of Iran, including east Azarbaijan province. This study aimed to isolate and identify the insect-associated bacteria with this pest and then evaluate the capability of these bacterial isolates in the biocontrol of this insect in laboratory conditions. Stock culture of C. maculatus was collected from the field in East Azerbaijan, and then was maintained under laboratory conditions of 25 ± 2° C and 60 ± 5% RH. Dead adult beetles were surface-sterilized with 0.1% hypochlorite and then transferred to NA media plates. It appeared that bacterial isolates were isolated and purified. In other to perform a bioassay, a bacterial suspension with a concentration of 106 (cell/ml) was prepared from each bacterial isolates were then spread in three replications on the same-age pest population separately. After the recording of the pest mortality, the most effective bacterial isolate, which showed over 40% mortality, was selected for supplementary assays selected bacterial isolate was identified by PCR using universal 16s rDNA primers. The obtained sequence data from our experiment were compared with gene bank sequences, and phylogenetic tree was drown. Based on sequencing data, the isolate bacteria are identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia species. The supplementary biochemical tests were confirmed the molecular data. These data is the first report for the biocontrol capability of this bacteria on this insect.

          Translated abstract

          RESUMEN Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleóptera; Bruchidae) es una de las plagas de almacenamiento más importantes, especialmente en leguminosas, que causa daños significativos en muchas partes de Irán, incluida la provincia oriental de Azarbaiyán. El objetivo de este estudio fue aislar e identificar las bacterias asociadas a esta plaga y evaluar la capacidad de estos aislados bacterianos en el biocontrol de este insecto en condiciones de laboratorio. El cultivo madre de C. maculatus se recolectó del campo en el este de Azerbaiyán y luego se mantuvo en condiciones de laboratorio de 25 ± 2" Cy 60 ± 5% de HR. Los escarabajos adultos muertos se esterilizaron en la superficie con hipoclorito al 0,1 % y luego se transfirieron a placas de medio NA. Los aislados bacterianos aparecidos fueron aislados y purificados. Para llevar a cabo el bioensayo, se preparó una suspensión bacteriana con una concentración de 106 células mL -1 de cada uno de los aislados bacterianos y se distribuyeron sobre la población de plagas de la misma edad por separado, con tres repeticiones. Tras el registro de la mortalidad de la plaga, se seleccionó el aislado bacteriano más eficaz, que mostró más de un 40% de mortalidad, para realizar ensayos suplementarios. El aislado bacteriano seleccionado se identificó mediante PCR utilizando cebadores universales de ADNr 16s. Los datos de secuencia obtenidos del experimento se compararon con las secuencias del banco de genes y se ahondó en el árbol filogenético. Según los datos de secuenciación, las bacterias aisladas se identificaron como especies de Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Las pruebas bioquímicas complementarias confirmaron los datos moleculares. Este es el primer informe sobre la capacidad de biocontrol de esta bacteria en este insecto.

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          Insect pathogens as biological control agents: Back to the future.

          The development and use of entomopathogens as classical, conservation and augmentative biological control agents have included a number of successes and some setbacks in the past 1years. In this forum paper we present current information on development, use and future directions of insect-specific viruses, bacteria, fungi and nematodes as components of integrated pest management strategies for control of arthropod pests of crops, forests, urban habitats, and insects of medical and veterinary importance. Insect pathogenic viruses are a fruitful source of microbial control agents (MCAs), particularly for the control of lepidopteran pests. Most research is focused on the baculoviruses, important pathogens of some globally important pests for which control has become difficult due to either pesticide resistance or pressure to reduce pesticide residues. Baculoviruses are accepted as safe, readily mass produced, highly pathogenic and easily formulated and applied control agents. New baculovirus products are appearing in many countries and gaining an increased market share. However, the absence of a practical in vitro mass production system, generally higher production costs, limited post application persistence, slow rate of kill and high host specificity currently contribute to restricted use in pest control. Overcoming these limitations are key research areas for which progress could open up use of insect viruses to much larger markets. A small number of entomopathogenic bacteria have been commercially developed for control of insect pests. These include several Bacillus thuringiensis sub-species, Lysinibacillus (Bacillus) sphaericus, Paenibacillus spp. and Serratia entomophila. B. thuringiensis sub-species kurstaki is the most widely used for control of pest insects of crops and forests, and B. thuringiensis sub-species israelensis and L. sphaericus are the primary pathogens used for control of medically important pests including dipteran vectors. These pathogens combine the advantages of chemical pesticides and MCAs: they are fast acting, easy to produce at a relatively low cost, easy to formulate, have a long shelf life and allow delivery using conventional application equipment and systemics (i.e. in transgenic plants). Unlike broad spectrum chemical pesticides, B. thuringiensis toxins are selective and negative environmental impact is very limited. Of the several commercially produced MCAs, B. thuringiensis (Bt) has more than 50% of market share. Extensive research, particularly on the molecular mode of action of Bt toxins, has been conducted over the past two decades. The Bt genes used in insect-resistant transgenic crops belong to the Cry and vegetative insecticidal protein families of toxins. Bt has been highly efficacious in pest management of corn and cotton, drastically reducing the amount of broad spectrum chemical insecticides used while being safe for consumers and non-target organisms. Despite successes, the adoption of Bt crops has not been without controversy. Although there is a lack of scientific evidence regarding their detrimental effects, this controversy has created the widespread perception in some quarters that Bt crops are dangerous for the environment. In addition to discovery of more efficacious isolates and toxins, an increase in the use of Bt products and transgenes will rely on innovations in formulation, better delivery systems and ultimately, wider public acceptance of transgenic plants expressing insect-specific Bt toxins. Fungi are ubiquitous natural entomopathogens that often cause epizootics in host insects and possess many desirable traits that favor their development as MCAs. Presently, commercialized microbial pesticides based on entomopathogenic fungi largely occupy niche markets. A variety of molecular tools and technologies have recently allowed reclassification of numerous species based on phylogeny, as well as matching anamorphs (asexual forms) and teleomorphs (sexual forms) of several entomopathogenic taxa in the Phylum Ascomycota. Although these fungi have been traditionally regarded exclusively as pathogens of arthropods, recent studies have demonstrated that they occupy a great diversity of ecological niches. Entomopathogenic fungi are now known to be plant endophytes, plant disease antagonists, rhizosphere colonizers, and plant growth promoters. These newly understood attributes provide possibilities to use fungi in multiple roles. In addition to arthropod pest control, some fungal species could simultaneously suppress plant pathogens and plant parasitic nematodes as well as promote plant growth. A greater understanding of fungal ecology is needed to define their roles in nature and evaluate their limitations in biological control. More efficient mass production, formulation and delivery systems must be devised to supply an ever increasing market. More testing under field conditions is required to identify effects of biotic and abiotic factors on efficacy and persistence. Lastly, greater attention must be paid to their use within integrated pest management programs; in particular, strategies that incorporate fungi in combination with arthropod predators and parasitoids need to be defined to ensure compatibility and maximize efficacy. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are potent MCAs. Substantial progress in research and application of EPNs has been made in the past decade. The number of target pests shown to be susceptible to EPNs has continued to increase. Advancements in this regard primarily have been made in soil habitats where EPNs are shielded from environmental extremes, but progress has also been made in use of nematodes in above-ground habitats owing to the development of improved protective formulations. Progress has also resulted from advancements in nematode production technology using both in vivo and in vitro systems; novel application methods such as distribution of infected host cadavers; and nematode strain improvement via enhancement and stabilization of beneficial traits. Innovative research has also yielded insights into the fundamentals of EPN biology including major advances in genomics, nematode-bacterial symbiont interactions, ecological relationships, and foraging behavior. Additional research is needed to leverage these basic findings toward direct improvements in microbial control.
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            The versatility and adaptation of bacteria from the genus Stenotrophomonas.

            The genus Stenotrophomonas comprises at least eight species. These bacteria are found throughout the environment, particularly in close association with plants. Strains of the most predominant species, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, have an extraordinary range of activities that include beneficial effects for plant growth and health, the breakdown of natural and man-made pollutants that are central to bioremediation and phytoremediation strategies and the production of biomolecules of economic value, as well as detrimental effects, such as multidrug resistance, in human pathogenic strains. Here, we discuss the versatility of the bacteria in the genus Stenotrophomonas and the insight that comparative genomic analysis of clinical and endophytic isolates of S. maltophilia has brought to our understanding of the adaptation of this genus to various niches.
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              Clinical implications and microbiology of bacterial persistence after treatment procedures.

              Apical periodontitis is an infectious disease caused by microorganisms colonizing the root canal system. For an optimal outcome of the endodontic treatment to be achieved, bacterial populations within the root canal should be ideally eliminated or at least significantly reduced to levels that are compatible with periradicular tissue healing. If bacteria persist after chemomechanical preparation supplemented or not with an intracanal medication, there is an increased risk of adverse outcome of the endodontic treatment. Therefore, bacterial presence in the root canal at the time of filling has been shown to be a risk factor for posttreatment apical periodontitis. About 100 species/phylotypes have already been detected in postinstrumentation and/or postmedication samples, and gram-positive bacteria are the most dominant. However, it remains to be determined by longitudinal studies if any species/phylotypes persisting after treatment procedures can influence outcome. This review article discusses diverse aspects of bacterial persistence after treatment, including the microbiology, bacterial strategies to persist, the requisites for persisting bacteria to affect the outcome, and future directions of research in this field.

                Author and article information

                Idesia (Arica)
                Universidad de Tarapacá. Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas (Arica, , Chile )
                December 2022
                : 40
                : 4
                : 17-23
                [3] Roudehen orgnameIslamic Azad University orgdiv1Department of Agronomy, Roudehen Branch Iran
                [1] Tabriz orgnameIslamic Azad University orgdiv1Department of Plant Protection orgdiv2Tabriz Branch Iran
                [2] Tabriz East Azerbaijan orgnameTabriz University orgdiv1Department of Plant Protection Iran
                S0718-34292022000400017 S0718-3429(22)04000400017

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                : 20 May 2023
                : 22 March 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 23, Pages: 7

                SciELO Chile

                Callosobruchus maculatus,Plaga de almacenamiento,Control biológico,Stenotrophomonas maltophilia,Stored pest,Biological control


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