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      Specific deletion of Cdc42 does not affect meiotic spindle organization/migration and homologous chromosome segregation but disrupts polarity establishment and cytokinesis in mouse oocytes

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          Abstract

          Oocyte-specific deletion of Cdc42 has little effect on meiotic spindle organization and migration to the cortex but inhibits polar body emission, although homologous chromosome segregation occurs. The failure of cytokinesis is due to loss of polarized Arp2/3 accumulation and actin cap formation, and thus the defective contract ring.

          Abstract

          Mammalian oocyte maturation is distinguished by highly asymmetric meiotic divisions during which a haploid female gamete is produced and almost all the cytoplasm is maintained in the egg for embryo development. Actin-dependent meiosis I spindle positioning to the cortex induces the formation of a polarized actin cap and oocyte polarity, and it determines asymmetric divisions resulting in two polar bodies. Here we investigate the functions of Cdc42 in oocyte meiotic maturation by oocyte-specific deletion of Cdc42 through Cre-loxP conditional knockout technology. We find that Cdc42 deletion causes female infertility in mice. Cdc42 deletion has little effect on meiotic spindle organization and migration to the cortex but inhibits polar body emission, although homologous chromosome segregation occurs. The failure of cytokinesis is due to the loss of polarized Arp2/3 accumulation and actin cap formation; thus the defective contract ring. In addition, we correlate active Cdc42 dynamics with its function during polar body emission and find a relationship between Cdc42 and polarity, as well as polar body emission, in mouse oocytes.

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          Most cited references 48

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          Rho GTPases and actin dynamics in membrane protrusions and vesicle trafficking.

          Rho GTPases are well known to regulate actin dynamics. They activate two types of actin nucleators, WASP/WAVE proteins and Diaphanous-related formins (DRFs), which induce different types of actin organization. Their ability to interact with membranes allows them to target actin polymerization to discrete sites on the plasma membrane and to intracellular membrane compartments and thereby induce membrane protrusions or regulate vesicle movement. Most studies have concentrated on just three of the 22 mammalian Rho proteins, RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42. However, recent research indicates that several other members of the Rho family, including Rif, RhoD, TC10 and Wrch1, and also related Rho-of-plants proteins (ROPs) in plants, stimulate actin polymerization and affect plasma membrane protrusion and/or vesicular traffic.
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            Cdc42 controls spindle orientation to position the apical surface during epithelial morphogenesis

            The establishment of apical–basal polarity within a single cell and throughout a growing tissue is a key feature of epithelial morphogenesis. To examine the underlying mechanisms, the human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2 was grown in a three-dimensional matrix to generate a cystlike structure, where the apical surface of each epithelial cell faces a fluid-filled central lumen. A discrete apical domain is established as early as the first cell division and between the two daughter cells. During subsequent cell divisions, the apical domain of each daughter cell is maintained at the center of the growing structure through a combination of mitotic spindle orientation and asymmetric abscission. Depletion of Cdc42 does not prevent the establishment of apical–basal polarity in individual cells but rather disrupts spindle orientation, leading to inappropriate positioning of apical surfaces within the cyst. We conclude that Cdc42 regulates epithelial tissue morphogenesis by controlling spindle orientation during cell division.
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              Concentric zones of active RhoA and Cdc42 around single cell wounds

              Rho GTPases control many cytoskeleton-dependent processes, but how they regulate spatially distinct features of cytoskeletal function within a single cell is poorly understood. Here, we studied active RhoA and Cdc42 in wounded Xenopus oocytes, which assemble and close a dynamic ring of actin filaments (F-actin) and myosin-2 around wound sites. RhoA and Cdc42 are rapidly activated around wound sites in a calcium-dependent manner and segregate into distinct, concentric zones around the wound, with active Cdc42 in the approximate middle of the F-actin array and active RhoA on the interior of the array. These zones form before F-actin accumulation, and then move in concert with the closing array. Microtubules and F-actin are required for normal zone organization and dynamics, as is crosstalk between RhoA and Cdc42. Each of the zones makes distinct contributions to the organization and function of the actomyosin wound array. We propose that similar rho activity zones control related processes such as cytokinesis.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                aState Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
                bUniversity of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
                cMolecular Pathology Section, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Biotech Research and Innovation Centre, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark
                dDepartment of Veterinary Pathobiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211
                Carnegie Institution
                Author notes
                1Address correspondence to: Qing-Yuan Sun ( sunqy@ 123456ioz.ac.cn ).
                Contributors
                Role: Monitoring Editor
                Journal
                Mol Biol Cell
                Mol. Biol. Cell
                molbiolcell
                mbc
                Mol. Bio. Cell
                Molecular Biology of the Cell
                The American Society for Cell Biology
                1059-1524
                1939-4586
                15 December 2013
                : 24
                : 24
                : 3832-3841
                24131996 3861080 E13-03-0123 10.1091/mbc.E13-03-0123
                © 2013 Wang et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

                “ASCB®,” “The American Society for Cell Biology®,” and “Molecular Biology of the Cell®” are registered trademarks of The American Society of Cell Biology.

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