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      Kemp elimination catalysts by computational enzyme design

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          Abstract

          The design of new enzymes for reactions not catalysed by naturally occurring biocatalysts is a challenge for protein engineering and is a critical test of our understanding of enzyme catalysis. Here we describe the computational design of eight enzymes that use two different catalytic motifs to catalyse the Kemp elimination-a model reaction for proton transfer from carbon-with measured rate enhancements of up to 10(5) and multiple turnovers. Mutational analysis confirms that catalysis depends on the computationally designed active sites, and a high-resolution crystal structure suggests that the designs have close to atomic accuracy. Application of in vitro evolution to enhance the computational designs produced a >200-fold increase in k(cat)/K(m) (k(cat)/K(m) of 2,600 M(-1)s(-1) and k(cat)/k(uncat) of >10(6)). These results demonstrate the power of combining computational protein design with directed evolution for creating new enzymes, and we anticipate the creation of a wide range of useful new catalysts in the future.

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          Most cited references 23

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          De novo computational design of retro-aldol enzymes.

          The creation of enzymes capable of catalyzing any desired chemical reaction is a grand challenge for computational protein design. Using new algorithms that rely on hashing techniques to construct active sites for multistep reactions, we designed retro-aldolases that use four different catalytic motifs to catalyze the breaking of a carbon-carbon bond in a nonnatural substrate. Of the 72 designs that were experimentally characterized, 32, spanning a range of protein folds, had detectable retro-aldolase activity. Designs that used an explicit water molecule to mediate proton shuffling were significantly more successful, with rate accelerations of up to four orders of magnitude and multiple turnovers, than those involving charged side-chain networks. The atomic accuracy of the design process was confirmed by the x-ray crystal structure of active designs embedded in two protein scaffolds, both of which were nearly superimposable on the design model.
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            [19] Rapid and efficient site-specific mutagenesis without phenotypic selection

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              ROSETTALIGAND: protein-small molecule docking with full side-chain flexibility.

              Protein-small molecule docking algorithms provide a means to model the structure of protein-small molecule complexes in structural detail and play an important role in drug development. In recent years the necessity of simulating protein side-chain flexibility for an accurate prediction of the protein-small molecule interfaces has become apparent, and an increasing number of docking algorithms probe different approaches to include protein flexibility. Here we describe a new method for docking small molecules into protein binding sites employing a Monte Carlo minimization procedure in which the rigid body position and orientation of the small molecule and the protein side-chain conformations are optimized simultaneously. The energy function comprises van der Waals (VDW) interactions, an implicit solvation model, an explicit orientation hydrogen bonding potential, and an electrostatics model. In an evaluation of the scoring function the computed energy correlated with experimental small molecule binding energy with a correlation coefficient of 0.63 across a diverse set of 229 protein- small molecule complexes. The docking method produced lowest energy models with a root mean square deviation (RMSD) smaller than 2 A in 71 out of 100 protein-small molecule crystal structure complexes (self-docking). In cross-docking calculations in which both protein side-chain and small molecule internal degrees of freedom were varied the lowest energy predictions had RMSDs less than 2 A in 14 of 20 test cases. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature
                Nature
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0028-0836
                1476-4687
                May 2008
                March 19 2008
                May 2008
                : 453
                : 7192
                : 190-195
                Article
                10.1038/nature06879
                18354394
                © 2008

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