(1) Objective: To assess the reliability and validity of the simplified Chinese version of the brief Diabetes Quality of Life (DQoL) questionnaire in measuring health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Chinese type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. (2) Methods: A cross-sectional validation study including 277 patients was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Shanghai, China during April–May, 2018. The English brief DQoL was forward and back-translated into simplified Chinese. The expert interview, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and Spearman correlation with the 5-level version of EuroQoL-5 (EQ-5D-5L) were employed to establish its validity. The internal reliability was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha. Participants were also stratified into subgroups to evaluate if the Chinese brief DQoL had more test effectiveness in a specific subpopulation. (3) Results: No items were removed from the original English brief DQoL based on the results of factor analysis and expert interview. The Spearman coefficient revealed a low-moderate inverse correlation between DQoL and EQ-5D-5L index and visual analogue scale (VAS), respectively (ρ1 = −0.364, p < 0.0001; ρ2 = −0.514, p < 0.0001). The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the final scale was 0.731. (4) Conclusions: The simplified Chinese version of the brief DQoL questionnaire showed reasonable reliability and validity, suggesting its potential appropriateness for evaluating quality of life in Chinese T2D patients. More future efforts should be made to generalize the application of the findings.