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      Decrease in hand and cerebral oxygenation after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for arteriovenous fistula stenosis in a patient on chronic hemodialysis

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          A 79-year-old woman who was on chronic hemodialysis due to diabetic nephropathy and had previously undergo surgery for radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in her right wrist needed percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for stenosis at the juxta-anastomotic access site. After successful PTA, the systemic blood pressure decreased from 144/93 mm Hg to 117/67 mm Hg in response to the increase in AVF blood flow. Furthermore, the regional oxygen saturation (rSO 2) value in her dorsal hand decreased from 67.9% to 64.9% and, simultaneously, the cerebral rSO 2 decreased from 63.6% to 60.1%. Our experience indicates that the PTA procedure may affect the rapid deterioration of systemic oxygenation, including that in the hand and brain, in association with the increase in the AVF blood flow and change in systemic circulation.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Clinical practice guidelines for vascular access.

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            Type of vascular access and survival among incident hemodialysis patients: the Choices for Healthy Outcomes in Caring for ESRD (CHOICE) Study.

            Arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) have advantages over arteriovenous grafts (AVG) and central venous catheters (CVC), but whether AVF are associated independently with better survival is unclear. Recent studies showing such a survival benefit did not include early access experience or account for changes in access type over time and did not include data on some important confounders. Reported here are survival rates stratified by the type of access in use up to 3 yr after initiation of hemodialysis among 616 incident patients who were enrolled in the Choices for Healthy Outcomes in Caring for ESRD (CHOICE) Study. A total of 1084 accesses (185 AVF, 296 AVG, 603 CVC) were used for a total of 1381 person-years. At initiation, 409 (66%) patients were using a CVC, 122 (20%) were using an AVG, and 85 (14%) were using an AVF. After 6 mo, 34% were using a CVC, 40% were using an AVG, and 26% were using an AVF. Annual mortality rates were 11.7% for AVF, 14.2% for AVG, and 16.1% for CVC. Adjusted relative hazards (RH) of death compared with AVF were 1.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 2.2) for CVC and 1.2 (0.8 to 1.8) for AVG. The increased hazards associated with CVC, as compared with AVF, were stronger in men (n = 334; RH = 2.0; P = 0.01) than women (n = 282; RH = 1.0 for CVC; P = 0.92). These results strongly support existing clinical practice guidelines and suggest that the use of venous catheters should be minimized to reduce the frequency of access complications and to improve patient survival, especially among male hemodialysis patients.
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              Upper extremity ischemia and hemodialysis vascular access.

              Digital ischemia in dialysis patients due to arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) is a rare condition, occurring in 4% of patients. The etiology is different from lower limb ischemia. Blood shunting through the AVF may cause stealing of blood and hypoperfusion in distal tissues, leading to pain, discolorisation and ulcers. High-flow AVFs have greater risk on ischemia than normal flow AVFs, however combined with peripheral arteriosclerotic disease the latter may also leads to ischemia. A non-invasive and angiographic diagnosis is of importance to determine treatment options. Augmentation of arterial inflow by interventional techniques and/or AVF bloodflow-reducing surgical procedures may eliminate pain and heal ulcers. The best results are obtained by bypassing the arteriovenous anastomotic site and interruption of steal phenomenon by ligation of the artery distal to the AV anastomosis.

                Author and article information

                Radiol Case Rep
                Radiol Case Rep
                Radiology Case Reports
                03 July 2020
                September 2020
                03 July 2020
                : 15
                : 9
                : 1493-1495
                [a ]Division of Nephrology, First Department of Integrated Medicine, Saitama Medical Center, Jichi Medical University, 1-847 Amanuma-cho, Omiya-ku, Saitama-City, Saitama-ken 330-8503, Japan
                [b ]Third Department of Internal Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and General University Hospital in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic
                Author notes
                [* ] Corresponding author. su-ooka@
                © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of University of Washington.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

                Complications of Therapy


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