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      Clinical Significance of Chronic Kidney Disease and Atrial Fibrillation on Morbidity and Mortality in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Atrial fibrillation (AF) often coexists with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major risk for AMI. However, the combined impact of CKD and AF on the mortality and morbidity in AMI population has not been determined. Methods: Between January 2004 and December 2009, a total of 4,738 AMI patients were enrolled prospectively. Patients were divided into four groups according to the combined status of CKD and AF. The primary endpoint was a combination of 5-year major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). Results: The prevalence of AF was significantly higher in CKD patients than in non-CKD patients (6.76 vs. 3.31%, p < 0.001). The highest cumulative event rate of MACCE and death was observed in patients with both CKD and AF (68.5 and 64.0%), respectively. In multivariable analyses, compared with patients with neither AF nor CKD, hazard ratios (HR) for composite of MACCE were 1.66 (95% CI, 1.14-2.41), 1.24 (95% CI, 1.06-1.46), and 2.10 (95% CI, 1.42-3.13) for patients with AF only, those with CKD only, and those with both CKD and AF, respectively (p for interaction = 0.935). Patients with both CKD and AF had a greatest risk for all-cause mortality (HR 2.54; 95% CI, 1.60-4.53), and the significant synergistic interaction was observed between CKD and AF (p for interaction = 0.015). Conclusion: The combined effect of AF and CKD on the risk of MACCE after an AMI is stronger than any separate condition, and it confers a synergistic effect on the all-cause mortality risk.

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          Most cited references 20

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          ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2008: the Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure 2008 of the European Society of Cardiology. Developed in collaboration with the Heart Failure Association of the ESC (HFA) and endorsed by the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM).

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            Chronic kidney disease and the risk for cardiovascular disease, renal replacement, and death in the United States Medicare population, 1998 to 1999.

            Knowledge of the excess risk posed by specific cardiovascular syndromes could help in the development of strategies to reduce premature mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The rates of atherosclerotic vascular disease, congestive heart failure, renal replacement therapy, and death were compared in a 5% sample of the United States Medicare population in 1998 and 1999 (n = 1,091,201). Patients were divided into the following groups: 1, no diabetes, no CKD (79.7%); 2, diabetes, no CKD (16.5%); 3, CKD, no diabetes (2.2%); and 4, both CKD and diabetes (1.6%). During the 2 yr of follow-up, the rates (per 100 patient-years) in the four groups were as follows: atherosclerotic vascular disease, 14.1, 25.3, 35.7, and 49.1; congestive heart failure, 8.6, 18.5, 30.7, and 52.3; renal replacement therapy, 0.04, 0.2, 1.6, and 3.4; and death, 5.5, 8.1, 17.7, and 19.9, respectively (P < 0.0001). With use of Cox regression, the corresponding adjusted hazards ratios were as follows: atherosclerotic vascular disease, 1, 1.30, 1.16, and 1.41 (P < 0.0001); congestive heart failure, 1, 1.44, 1.28, and 1.79 (P < 0.0001); renal replacement therapy, 1, 2.52, 23.1, and 38.9 (P < 0.0001); and death, 1, 1.21, 1.38, and 1.56 (P < 0.0001). On a relative basis, patients with CKD were at a much greater risk for the least frequent study outcome, renal replacement therapy. On an absolute basis, however, the high death rates of patients with CKD may reflect accelerated rates of atherosclerotic vascular disease and congestive heart failure.
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              American College of Cardiology key data elements and definitions for measuring the clinical management and outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndromes. A report of the American College of Cardiology Task Force on Clinical Data Standards (Acute Coronary Syndromes Writing Committee).

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2014
                November 2014
                29 October 2014
                : 40
                : 4
                : 345-352
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Nephrology, bDivision of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, and cDepartment of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju, Korea
                Author notes
                *Youngkeun Ahn, MD, PhD, FACC, FSCAI, Department of Cardiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Jebongro 671, Dong-gu, Gwangju, 501-757 (Korea), E-Mail cecilyk@hanmail.net
                Article
                368422 Am J Nephrol 2014;40:345-352
                10.1159/000368422
                25358406
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research

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