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      Healthy lifestyle behaviors among individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in urban and rural communities in China: a large community-based epidemiological study

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          Lifestyle modification is one of the most cost-effective strategies in self-management and secondary prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the prevalence of healthy lifestyle behaviors in COPD patients in China remains unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the rates of healthy lifestyle behaviors including smoking cessation, regular exercise, and healthy diet in community population with COPD in China.


          We recruited 46,285 individuals aged 35–70 years from 115 urban and rural communities in 12 provinces of China from 2005 to 2009. We recorded the smoking status, physical activity intensity, and quality of diet for all spirometry-diagnosed COPD patients by standardized questionnaires.


          Among 3,690 individuals with COPD, 18.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.0–24.9) quitted smoking, 27.1% (95% CI, 24.7–29.7) exercised often, and 34.8% (95% CI, 31.8–38.0) ate high-quality diet. More than half of the individuals followed one or less key healthy lifestyle, and only 8.4% (95% CI, 7.0–10.0) followed all of the three healthy behaviors. Urban residents had significant higher rates of smoking cessation (23.5% [95% CI, 17.3–31.1] vs 14.4% [95% CI, 9.9–20.5], p=0.0008), regular exercise (45.6% [95% CI, 42.4–48.8] vs 14.0% [95% CI, 12.1–16.2], p<0.0001), and healthy diet (38.5% [95% CI, 35.5–41.6] vs 32.2% [95% CI, 29.2–35.4], p=0.0013) than rural residents. Age, sex, education level, body mass index, respiratory symptoms, and family income were associated with healthy living, and the strength of associations varied between urban and rural areas.


          There is a large gap between the anticipated rate and the real participation in healthy lifestyle behaviors in Chinese adults with COPD, especially in rural communities. Simple and effective strategies are warranted to improve patients’ lifestyle in China.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Development, validation and utilisation of food-frequency questionnaires - a review.

          The purpose of this review is to provide guidance on the development, validation and use of food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) for different study designs. It does not include any recommendations about the most appropriate method for dietary assessment (e.g. food-frequency questionnaire versus weighed record). A comprehensive search of electronic databases was carried out for publications from 1980 to 1999. Findings from the review were then commented upon and added to by a group of international experts. Recommendations have been developed to aid in the design, validation and use of FFQs. Specific details of each of these areas are discussed in the text. FFQs are being used in a variety of ways and different study designs. There is no gold standard for directly assessing the validity of FFQs. Nevertheless, the outcome of this review should help those wishing to develop or adapt an FFQ to validate it for its intended use.
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            The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study: examining the impact of societal influences on chronic noncommunicable diseases in low-, middle-, and high-income countries.

            Marked changes in the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease have occurred in developed and developing countries in recent decades. The overarching aim of the study is to examine the relationship of societal influences on human lifestyle behaviors, cardiovascular risk factors, and incidence of chronic noncommunicable diseases. The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a large-scale epidemiological study that plans to recruit approximately 140,000 individuals residing in >600 communities in 17 low-, middle-, and high-income countries around the world. Individual data collection includes medical history, lifestyle behaviors (physical activity and dietary profile), blood collection and storage for biochemistry and future genetic analysis, electrocardiogram, and anthropometric measures. In addition, detailed information is being collected with respect to 4 environmental domains of interest-the built environment, nutrition and associated food policy, psychosocial/socioeconomic factors, and tobacco environment. A minimum follow-up of 10 years is currently planned. This report describes the design, justification, and methodology of the PURE study. The PURE study has been recruiting since 2002 and has enrolled 139,506 individuals by March 31, 2009. The PURE study builds on the work and experience gained through conduct of the INTERHEART study. Its design and extensive data collection are geared toward addressing major questions on causation and development of the underlying determinants of cardiovascular disease in populations at varying stages of epidemiologic transition.
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                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                13 November 2017
                : 12
                : 3311-3321
                State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Wei Li, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Yongding Town, Mentougou District, Beijing 102300, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 139 1070 4480, Fax +86 10 6086 6179, Email liwei@
                © 2017 Yan et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                diet, physical activity, smoking cessation, lifestyle, copd


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