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      Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis recurrence after kidney transplantation: using the new classification

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          Abstract

          Background

          Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is an uncommon glomerular disorder that may lead to end stage renal disease (ESRD). With new understanding of the disease pathogenesis, the classical classification as MPGN types I, II, III has changed. Data on post-transplant MPGN, in particular with the newly refined classification, is limited. We present our center’s experience of MPGN after kidney transplantation using the new classification.

          Methods

          This is a retrospective study of 34 patients with ESRD due to MPGN who received 40 kidney transplants between 1994 and 2014. We reviewed the available biopsies’ data using the new classification. We assessed post transplantation recurrence rate, risk factors of recurrence, the response to therapy and allografts’ survival.

          Results

          Median time of follow up was 5.3 years (range 0.5–14 years). Using the new classification, we found that pre-transplant MPGN disease was due to immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis (ICGN) in 89 % of cases and complement-mediated glomerulonephritis (CGN) in 11 %. Recurrence was detected in 18 transplants (45 %). Living related allografts ( P = 0.045), preemptive transplantations ( P = 0.018), low complement level ( P = 0.006), and the presence of monoclonal gammopathy ( P = 0.010) were associated with higher recurrence rate in ICGN cases. Half of the patients with recurrence lost their allografts. The use of ACEi/ARB was associated with a trend toward less allograft loss.

          Conclusions

          MPGN recurs at a high rate after kidney transplantation. The risk of MPGN recurrence increases with preemptive transplantation, living related donation, low complement level, and the presence of monoclonal gammopathy. Recurrence of MPGN leads to allograft failure in half of the cases.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type II (dense deposit disease): an update.

          Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type II (MPGN II) is a rare disease characterized by the deposition of abnormal electron-dense material within the glomerular basement membrane of the kidney and often within Bruch's membrane in the eye. The diagnosis is made in most patients between the ages of 5 and 15 yr, and within 10 yr, approximately half progress to end-stage renal disease, occasionally with the late comorbidity of visual impairment. The pathophysiologic basis of MPGN II is associated with the uncontrolled systemic activation of the alternative pathway (AP) of the complement cascade. In most patients, loss of complement regulation is caused by C3 nephritic factor, an autoantibody directed against the C3 convertase of the AP, but in some patients, mutations in the factor H gene have been identified. For the latter patients, plasma replacement therapy prevents renal failure, but for the majority of patients, there is no proven effective treatment. The disease recurs in virtually all renal allografts, and a high percentage of these ultimately fail. The development of molecular diagnostic tools and new therapies directed at controlling the AP of the complement cascade either locally in the kidney or at the systemic level may lead to effective treatments for MPGN II.
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            The changing spectrum of primary glomerular diseases within 15 years: a survey of 3331 patients in a single Chinese centre.

            Primary glomerular disease (PGD) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in China. With the development of socioeconomic status of Chinese people in the last two decades, PGD in ESRD is intent to decrease. However, whether this affects the spectrum of PGD is not clear. The aim of the current study is to investigate the changing spectrum of PGD in China. The records of 5398 consecutive native renal biopsies performed in adults (>or=14 years of age) in our centre between 1993 and 2007 were retrospectively analysed. The criteria for renal biopsy and pathologic diagnosis were kept unchanged. The patients were grouped according to a 5-year interval, 1993-97 (period 1), 1998-2002 (period 2) and 2003-07 (period 3). Then they were divided into four groups according to age for stratified analysis: 14-24 years, 25-44 years, 45-59 years and the elderly (>or=60 years). Three thousand, three hundred and thirty-one patients were diagnosed with PGD. PGD remained the most common renal disease, accounting for 65.9%, 57.7% and 63.2% in period 1, 2 and 3, respectively, without any significant difference. The proportion of elder patients increased significantly from 0% in 1993 to 9.1% in 2007 (P < 0.001). Within 1993-97, the leading PGD was IgA nephropathy (50.7%), followed by non-IgA MsPGN (19.9%), membranous nephropathy (MN) (13.3%) and minimal change disease (MCD) (6.3%), while within 2003-07, the most common PGD was still IgAN (58.2%), but followed by MN (14.3%), MCD (13.4%) and non-IgA MsPGN (7.0%). The age-adjusted frequency of IgAN and MCD increased significantly from period 1 to period 3 (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively), while that of non-IgA MsPGN, EnPGN and MPGN decreased significantly (P < 0.001, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). There was no significant change in the age-adjusted frequency of FSGS, MN and CreGN during the study period. However, when patients were stratified by age, a sixfold increase in frequency of FSGS was identified in the 14- to 24-year group (P < 0.01). The spectrum of primary glomerulonephritis has changed within the last 15 years. The relative frequency of non-IgA MsPGN, EnPGN and MPGN decreased significantly, while that of MCD and IgA nephropathy increased significantly. The relative frequency of FSGS increased significantly in younger patients.
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              Clinical findings, pathology, and outcomes of C3GN after kidney transplantation.

              C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN) results from abnormalities in the alternative pathway of complement, and it is characterized by deposition of C3 with absent or scant Ig deposition. In many patients, C3GN progresses to ESRD. The clinical features, pathology, and outcomes of patients with C3GN receiving kidney transplantation are unknown. Between 1996 and 2010, we identified 21 patients at our institution who received a kidney transplant because of ESRD from C3GN. The median age at the time of initial diagnosis of C3GN at kidney biopsy was 20.8 years. The median time from native kidney biopsy to dialysis or transplantation was 42.3 months. Of 21 patients, 14 (66.7%) patients developed recurrent C3GN in the allograft. The median time to recurrence of disease was 28 months. Graft failure occurred in 50% of patients with recurrent C3GN, with a median time of 77 months to graft failure post-transplantation. The remaining 50% of patients had functioning grafts, with a median follow-up of 73.9 months. The majority of patients had hematuria and proteinuria at time of recurrence. Three (21%) patients were positive for monoclonal gammopathy and had a faster rate of recurrence and graft loss. Kidney biopsy at the time of recurrence showed mesangial proliferative GN in eight patients and membranoproliferative GN in six patients. All allograft kidney biopsies showed bright C3 staining (2-3+), with six biopsies also showing trace/1+ staining for IgM and/or IgG. To summarize, C3GN recurs in 66.7% of patients, and one half of the patients experience graft failure caused by recurrence.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                salasfa1@jhmi.edu
                ncarte13@jhmi.edu
                avi.rosenberg@nih.gov
                rmonty@jhmi.edu
                410-614-9225 , nalachk1@jhmi.edu
                Journal
                BMC Nephrol
                BMC Nephrol
                BMC Nephrology
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2369
                11 January 2016
                11 January 2016
                2016
                : 17
                Affiliations
                [ ]Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 Wolfe Street. Brady 502, 21287 Baltimore, MD USA
                [ ]Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD 21287 USA
                [ ]Department of Pathology, Children’s National Medical Center, 111 Michigan Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20010 USA
                [ ]Department of Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD 21287 USA
                Article
                219
                10.1186/s12882-015-0219-x
                4709883
                26754737
                © Alasfar et al. 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Nephrology

                immune complex gn, mpgn, kidney transplant, c3 glomerulopathy

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