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      How Do Internal and External CSR Affect Employees' Organizational Identification? A Perspective from the Group Engagement Model

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          The literature examines the impact of firms' corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities on employees' organizational identification without considering that such activities tend to have different targets. This study explores how perceived external CSR (efforts directed toward external stakeholders) and perceived internal CSR (efforts directed toward employees) activities influence employees' organizational identification. In so doing, it examines the alternative underlying mechanisms through which perceived external and internal CSR activities build employees' identification. Applying the taxonomy prescribed by the group engagement model, the study argues that the effects of perceived external and internal CSR flow through two competing mechanisms: perceived external prestige and perceived internal respect, respectively. Further, it is suggested that calling orientation (how employees see their work contributions) moderates the effects induced by these alternative forms of CSR. The model draws on survey data collected from a sample of 414 employees across five large multinationals in Pakistan. The results obtained using structural equation modeling support these hypotheses, reinforcing the notion that internal and external CSR operate through different mediating mechanisms and more interestingly employees' calling orientation moderates these relationships to a significant degree. Theoretical contributions and practical implications of results are discussed in detail.

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          Most cited references 57

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          Organizational Images and Member Identification

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            Corporate Social Responsibility: Strategic Implications*

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              Corporate Social Responsibility, Customer Satisfaction, and Market Value


                Author and article information

                Front Psychol
                Front Psychol
                Front. Psychol.
                Frontiers in Psychology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                30 May 2016
                : 7
                1Lahore Business School, The University of Lahore Lahore, Pakistan
                2Faculty of Business Administration, Lahore School of Economics Lahore, Pakistan
                3Department of Human Resources, Effat College of Business, Effat University Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
                4Kedge Business School Marseille, France
                Author notes

                Edited by: David Allen Jones, University of Vermont, USA

                Reviewed by: Matthew Christopher Davis, University of Leeds, UK; Flore Bridoux, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands

                *Correspondence: Imran Hameed imran.hameed@

                This article was submitted to Organizational Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology

                Copyright © 2016 Hameed, Riaz, Arain and Farooq.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 5, Equations: 0, References: 107, Pages: 13, Words: 10975
                Original Research


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