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      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Portraiture and social understanding

      Advances in Autism

      Emerald Publishing

      Interventions, Autism spectrum disorder, Social communication disorder

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the possible explanations for deficits in social understanding evident in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A potential intervention technique is proposed that has not yet been examined in this population: viewing and drawing portraits. This portraiture-based intervention seeks to address some of the core issues set forth in each of the theories explaining impaired social functioning. Furthermore, this intervention is intended to specifically increase exposure to facial stimuli in a safe and controlled environment. Instructions about how to look closely at a social partner’s face and how to glean salient emotional information from the facial expression displayed can be developed through a focused exploration of drawing and viewing portraits. Current techniques such as eye tracking and fMRI are discussed in the context of this proposed intervention.

          Design/methodology/approach

          – This paper reviews existing research about ASD and seeks to present a new proposal for an intervention using portraiture. First the paper discusses existing interventions and reviews the current research about potential causes/areas of deficiency in individuals on the spectrum. This paper subsequently proposes a new type of intervention and discusses the reasons underpinning its potential success in the context of existing research.

          Findings

          – This was a proposed study so no empirical findings have been reported. However, observations of individuals on the spectrum engaging with artwork are discussed in this paper.

          Originality/value

          – No other research or study has been proposed in current literature relating specifically to the use of portraits (looking at and creating) to help individuals with ASD.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 27

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          The social motivation theory of autism.

          The idea that social motivation deficits play a central role in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has recently gained increased interest. This constitutes a shift in autism research, which has traditionally focused more intensely on cognitive impairments, such as theory-of-mind deficits or executive dysfunction, and has granted comparatively less attention to motivational factors. This review delineates the concept of social motivation and capitalizes on recent findings in several research areas to provide an integrated account of social motivation at the behavioral, biological and evolutionary levels. We conclude that ASD can be construed as an extreme case of diminished social motivation and, as such, provides a powerful model to understand humans' intrinsic drive to seek acceptance and avoid rejection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Understanding emotions in others: mirror neuron dysfunction in children with autism spectrum disorders.

            To examine mirror neuron abnormalities in autism, high-functioning children with autism and matched controls underwent fMRI while imitating and observing emotional expressions. Although both groups performed the tasks equally well, children with autism showed no mirror neuron activity in the inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis). Notably, activity in this area was inversely related to symptom severity in the social domain, suggesting that a dysfunctional 'mirror neuron system' may underlie the social deficits observed in autism.
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              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              Parts and wholes in face recognition

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                AIA
                10.1108/AIA
                Advances in Autism
                Emerald Publishing
                2056-3868
                30 July 2015
                30 July 2015
                : 1
                : 1
                : 30-40
                Affiliations
                Yale University, Connecticut, United States.
                AIA-05-2015-0004.pdf
                10.1108/AIA-05-2015-0004
                © Emerald Group Publishing Limited
                Product
                Categories
                Articles
                Conceptual paper
                Health & social care
                Learning & intellectual disabilities
                Custom metadata
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                yes
                JOURNAL
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                Health & Social care

                Social communication disorder, Autism spectrum disorder, Interventions

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