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      Rhinovirus detection using different PCR-based strategies


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          Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are the major cause of the common cold. HRVs were recently reclassified into the Enterovirus genus (HEV) in the Picornaviridae family. HRVs and other members of the HEV genus share many common features, including sense RNA genomes and partial nucleotide sequence identity. The aim of this study was to evaluate different HRV detection strategies. Samples from adults with acute respiratory infection (n = 291) who were treated in Sao Paulo Hospital (2001-2003) were tested using three assays. The first assay detected picornaviruses by RT-PCR and hybridization, the second detected rhinoviruses using RT-PCR/sequencing, and the third differentiated HRV from HEV using duplex semi-nested-RT-PCR. Analysis of the results obtained from the first two strategies revealed 83% concordance. Discordant samples were then evaluated by the third protocol, and 82% were negative. The picornavirus detection protocol was more sensitive but less specific than the rhinovirus detection protocols. The semi-nested protocol utilized in the present study was less sensitive and was not useful in differentiating HRV from HEV. Sequencing assays examining different genes would address the best strategy of confirming rhinovirus and enterovirus infections.

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          Viruses and bacteria in the etiology of the common cold.

          Two hundred young adults with common colds were studied during a 10-month period. Virus culture, antigen detection, PCR, and serology with paired samples were used to identify the infection. Viral etiology was established for 138 of the 200 patients (69%). Rhinoviruses were detected in 105 patients, coronavirus OC43 or 229E infection was detected in 17, influenza A or B virus was detected in 12, and single infections with parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, and enterovirus were found in 14 patients. Evidence for bacterial infection was found in seven patients. Four patients had a rise in antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae, one had a rise in antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae, one had a rise in antibodies against Streptococcus pneumoniae, and one had immunoglobulin M antibodies against Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The results show that although approximately 50% of episodes of the common cold were caused by rhinoviruses, the etiology can vary depending on the epidemiological situation with regard to circulating viruses. Bacterial infections were rare, supporting the concept that the common cold is almost exclusively a viral disease.
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            Sequencing and analyses of all known human rhinovirus genomes reveal structure and evolution.

            Infection by human rhinovirus (HRV) is a major cause of upper and lower respiratory tract disease worldwide and displays considerable phenotypic variation. We examined diversity by completing the genome sequences for all known serotypes (n = 99). Superimposition of capsid crystal structure and optimal-energy RNA configurations established alignments and phylogeny. These revealed conserved motifs; clade-specific diversity, including a potential newly identified species (HRV-D); mutations in field isolates; and recombination. In analogy with poliovirus, a hypervariable 5' untranslated region tract may affect virulence. A configuration consistent with nonscanning internal ribosome entry was found in all HRVs and may account for rapid translation. The data density from complete sequences of the reference HRVs provided high resolution for this degree of modeling and serves as a platform for full genome-based epidemiologic studies and antiviral or vaccine development.
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              Simultaneous detection of fourteen respiratory viruses in clinical specimens by two multiplex reverse transcription nested‐PCR assays

              Abstract There is a need for rapid, sensitive, and accurate diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections in children, elderly, and immunocompromised patients, who are susceptible to serious complications. The multiplex RT‐nested PCR assay has been used widely for simultaneous detection of non‐related viruses involved in infectious diseases because of its high specificity and sensitivity. A new multiplex RT‐PCR assay is described in this report. This approach includes nested primer sets targeted to conserve regions of human parainfluenza virus haemagglutinin, human coronavirus spike protein, and human enterovirus and rhinovirus polyprotein genes. It permits rapid, sensitive, and simultaneous detection and typing of the four types of parainfluenza viruses (1, 2, 3, 4AB), human coronavirus 229E and OC43, and the generic detection of enteroviruses and rhinoviruses. The testing of 201 clinical specimens with this multiplex assay along with other one formerly described by our group to simultaneously detect and type the influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial viruses, and a generic detection of all serotypes of adenovirus, covers the detection of most viruses causing respiratory infectious disease in humans. The results obtained were compared with conventional viral culture, immunofluorescence assay, and a third multiplex RT‐PCR assay for all human parainfluenza viruses types described previously. In conclusion, both multiplex RT‐PCR assays provide a system capable of detecting and identifying simultaneously 14 different respiratory viruses in clinical specimens with high sensitivity and specificity, being useful for routine diagnosis and survey of these viruses within the population. J. Med. Virol. 72:484–495, 2004. © 2004 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.

                Author and article information

                Braz J Microbiol
                Braz. J. Microbiol
                Brazilian Journal of Microbiology
                Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
                Apr-Jun 2012
                1 June 2012
                : 43
                : 2
                : 739-743
                [1 ]Laboratório de Virologia Clínica, Unidade de Doenças Infecciosas, Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo , São Paulo, SP, Brasil
                Author notes
                * Corresponding Author. Mailing address: Clinical Virology Laboratory-Infectious Disease Unit, Department of Medicine, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Rua Pedro de Toledo, 781, 15° andar. Vila Clementino CEP: 04039-032 São Paulo – SP - Brasil.; Fax.: 55 11 50815394.; E-mail: nbellei@ 123456uol.com.br
                © Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia

                All the content of the journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons License

                : 13 July 2011
                : 07 June 2012
                Genetics and Molecular Microbiology
                Research Paper

                rhinovirus, enterovirus, detection, differentiation


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