132
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Evaluation of the maximum likelihood estimate of the evolutionary tree topologies from DNA sequence data, and the branching order in hominoidea

      ,
      Journal of Molecular Evolution
      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          A maximum likelihood method for inferring evolutionary trees from DNA sequence data was developed by Felsenstein (1981). In evaluating the extent to which the maximum likelihood tree is a significantly better representation of the true tree, it is important to estimate the variance of the difference between log likelihood of different tree topologies. Bootstrap resampling can be used for this purpose (Hasegawa et al. 1988; Hasegawa and Kishino 1989), but it imposes a great computation burden. To overcome this difficulty, we developed a new method for estimating the variance by expressing it explicitly. The method was applied to DNA sequence data from primates in order to evaluate the maximum likelihood branching order among Hominoidea. It was shown that, although the orangutan is convincingly placed as an outgroup of a human and African apes clade, the branching order among human, chimpanzee, and gorilla cannot be determined confidently from the DNA sequence data presently available when the evolutionary rate constancy is not assumed.

          Related collections

          Most cited references35

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          Biochemical evolution.

            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Mitochondrial DNA sequences of primates: Tempo and mode of evolution

            We cloned and sequenced a segment of mitochondrial DNA from human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and gibbon. This segment is 896 bp in length, contains the genes for three transfer RNAs and parts of two proteins, and is homologous in all 5 primates. The 5 sequences differ from one another by base substitutions at 283 positions and by a deletion of one base pair. The sequence differences range from 9 to 19% among species, in agreement with estimates from cleavage map comparisons, thus confirming that the rate of mtDNA evolution in primates is 5 to 10 times higher than in nuclear DNA. The most striking new finding to emerge from these comparisons is that transitions greatly outnumber transversions. Ninety-two percent of the differences among the most closely related species (human, chimpanzee, and gorilla) are transitions. For pairs of species with longer divergence times, the observed percentage of transitions falls until, in the case of comparisons between primates and non-primates, it reaches a value of 45. The time dependence is probably due to obliteration of the record of transitions by multiple substitutions at the same nucleotide site. This finding illustrates the importance of choosing closely related species for analysis of evolutionary process. The remarkable bias toward transitions in mtDNA evolution necessitates the revision of equations that correct for multiple substitutions at the same site. With revised equations, we calculated the incidence of silent and replacement substitutions in the two protein-coding genes. The silent substitution rate is 4 to 6 times higher than the replacement rate, indicating strong functional constraints at replacement sites. Moreover, the silent rate for these two genes is about 10% per million years, a value 10 times higher than the silent rate for the nuclear genes studied so far. In addition, the mean substitution rate in the three mitochondrial tRNA genes is at least 100 times higher than in nuclear tRNA genes. Finally, genealogical analysis of the sequence differences supports the view that the human lineage branched off only slightly before the gorilla and chimpanzee lineages diverged and strengthens the hypothesis that humans are more related to gorillas and chimpanzees than is the orangutan.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Rates of DNA sequence evolution differ between taxonomic groups.

              R. Britten (1986)
              The mutation rates of DNA sequences during evolution can be estimated from interspecies DNA sequence differences by assaying changes that have little or no effect on the phenotype (neutral mutations). Examination of available measurements shows that rates of DNA change of different phylogenetic groups differ by a factor of 5. The slowest rates are observed for higher primates and some bird lineages, while faster rates are seen in rodents, sea urchins, and drosophila. The rate of DNA sequence change has decreased markedly during primate evolution. The contrast in rates of DNA sequence change is probably due to evolutionary variation and selection of biochemical mechanisms such as DNA replication or repair.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Molecular Evolution
                J Mol Evol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0022-2844
                1432-1432
                August 1989
                August 1989
                : 29
                : 2
                : 170-179
                Article
                10.1007/BF02100115
                2509717
                10a38f6c-2c9b-41be-b005-7bf5e4bf75c6
                © 1989

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

                History

                Comments

                Comment on this article