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      Maternal Dietary Patterns and Birth Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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          Findings on the relations of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth and offspring birth size remain inconclusive. We aimed to systematically review and quantify these associations. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, and CINAHL up to December 2017. Three authors independently conducted a literature search, study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment. Summary effect sizes were calculated with random effects models and studies were summarized narratively if results could not be pooled. We included 36 studies and pooled results from 25 observational studies (167,507 participants). Two common dietary patterns—“healthy” and “unhealthy”—were identified. Healthy dietary patterns—characterized by high intakes of vegetables, fruits, wholegrains, low-fat dairy, and lean protein foods—were associated with lower risk of preterm birth (OR for top compared with bottom tertile: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.91; I 2  = 32%) and a weak trend towards a lower risk of small-for-gestational-age (OR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.73, 1.01; I 2  = 34%). Only statistically data-driven healthy dietary patterns, and not dietary index-based patterns, were associated with higher birth weight (mean difference: 67 g; 95% CI: 37, 96 g; I 2  = 75%). Unhealthy dietary patterns—characterized by high intakes of refined grains, processed meat, and foods high in saturated fat or sugar—were associated with lower birth weight (mean difference: −40 g; 95% CI: −61, −20 g; I 2  = 0%) and a trend towards a higher risk of preterm birth (OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.39; I 2 = 76%). Data from observational studies indicate that greater adherence to healthy dietary patterns during pregnancy is significantly related to lower risk of preterm birth. No consistent associations with birth weight and small- or large-for-gestational-age were observed.

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          Most cited references 55

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          Association of fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, albumin, or leukocyte count with coronary heart disease: meta-analyses of prospective studies.

          A large number of epidemiologic studies have reported on associations between various "inflammatory" factors and coronary heart disease (CHD). To assess the associations of blood levels of fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), and albumin and leukocyte count with the subsequent risk of CHD. Meta-analyses of any long-term prospective studies of CHD published before 1998 on any of these 4 factors. Studies were identified by MEDLINE searches, scanning of relevant reference lists, hand searching of cardiology, epidemiology, and other relevant journals, and discussions with authors of relevant reports. All relevant studies identified were included. The following information was abstracted from published reports (supplemented, in several cases, by the authors): size and type of cohort, mean age, mean duration of follow-up, assay methods, degree of adjustment for confounders, and relationship of CHD risk to the baseline assay results. For fibrinogen, with 4018 CHD cases in 18 studies, comparison of individuals in the top third with those in the bottom third of the baseline measurements yielded a combined risk ratio of 1.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-2.0) associated with a difference in long-term usual mean fibrinogen levels of 2.9 pmol/L (0.1 g/dL) between the top and bottom thirds (10.3 vs 7.4 pmol/L [0.35 vs 0.25 g/dL]). For CRP, with 1053 CHD cases in 7 studies, the combined risk ratio of 1.7 (95% CI, 1.4-2.1) was associated with a difference of 1.4 mg/L (2.4 vs 1.0 mg/L). For albumin, with 3770 CHD cases in 8 studies, the combined risk ratio of 1.5 (95% CI, 1.3-1.7) was associated with a difference of 4 g/L (38 vs 42 g/L, ie, an inverse association). For leukocyte count, with 5337 CHD cases in the 7 largest studies, the combined risk ratio of 1.4 (95% CI, 1.3-1.5) was associated with a difference of 2.8 x 10(9)/L (8.4 vs 5.6 x 10(9)/L). Each of these overall results was highly significant (P<.0001). The published results from these prospective studies are remarkably consistent for each factor, indicating moderate but highly statistically significant associations with CHD. Hence, even though mechanisms that might account for these associations are not clear, further study of the relevance of these factors to the causation of CHD is warranted.
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            Maternal nutrition and birth outcomes.

            In this review, the authors summarize current knowledge on maternal nutritional requirements during pregnancy, with a focus on the nutrients that have been most commonly investigated in association with birth outcomes. Data sourcing and extraction included searches of the primary resources establishing maternal nutrient requirements during pregnancy (e.g., Dietary Reference Intakes), and searches of Medline for "maternal nutrition"/[specific nutrient of interest] and "birth/pregnancy outcomes," focusing mainly on the less extensively reviewed evidence from observational studies of maternal dietary intake and birth outcomes. The authors used a conceptual framework which took both primary and secondary factors (e.g., baseline maternal nutritional status, socioeconomic status of the study populations, timing and methods of assessing maternal nutritional variables) into account when interpreting study findings. The authors conclude that maternal nutrition is a modifiable risk factor of public health importance that can be integrated into efforts to prevent adverse birth outcomes, particularly among economically developing/low-income populations.
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              Clinical review: Endogenous testosterone and mortality in men: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

              Low testosterone levels have been associated with outcomes that reduce survival in men. Our objective was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies to evaluate the association between endogenous testosterone and mortality. Data sources included MEDLINE (1966 to December 2010), EMBASE (1988 to December 2010), and reference lists. Eligible studies were published English-language observational studies of men that reported the association between endogenous testosterone and all-cause or cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. A two-stage process was used for study selection. 1) Working independently and in duplicate, reviewers screened a subset (10%) of abstracts. Results indicated 96% agreement, and thereafter, abstract screening was conducted in singlicate. 2) All full-text publications were reviewed independently and in duplicate for eligibility. Reviewers working independently and in duplicate determined methodological quality of studies and extracted descriptive, quality, and outcome data. Of 820 studies identified, 21 were included in the systematic review, and 12 were eligible for meta-analysis [n = 11 studies of all-cause mortality (16,184 subjects); n = 7 studies of CVD mortality (11,831 subjects)]. Subject mean age and testosterone level were 61 yr and 487 ng/dl, respectively, and mean follow-up time was 9.7 yr. Between-study heterogeneity was observed among studies of all-cause (P < .001) and CVD mortality (P = 0.06), limiting the ability to provide valid summary estimates. Heterogeneity in all-cause mortality (higher relative risks) was observed in studies that included older subjects (P = 0.020), reported lower testosterone levels (P = 0.018), followed subjects for a shorter time period (P = 0.010), and sampled blood throughout the day (P = 0.030). Low endogenous testosterone levels are associated with increased risk of all-cause and CVD death in community-based studies of men, but considerable between-study heterogeneity, which was related to study and subject characteristics, suggests that effects are driven by differences between cohorts (e.g. in underlying health status).

                Author and article information

                Adv Nutr
                Adv Nutr
                Advances in Nutrition
                Oxford University Press
                July 2019
                30 April 2019
                30 April 2019
                : 10
                : 4
                : 685-695
                [1 ]Departments of Obstetrics & Gynecology
                [2 ]Departments of Paediatrics, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore
                [3 ]Departments of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore
                [4 ]School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Sports Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
                [5 ]Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Agency for Science, Technology, and Research, Singapore
                [6 ]Food Science and Technology Program, Department of Chemistry
                [7 ]Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore
                [8 ]Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA
                Author notes
                Address correspondence to MF-FC (e-mail: mary_chong@ 123456nus.edu.sg )
                Copyright © American Society for Nutrition 2019.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@ 123456oup.com

                Page count
                Pages: 11


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