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      Urate Nephropathy following Chronic Ileostomy Acidosis

      American Journal of Nephrology

      S. Karger AG

      Chronic renal failure, Urate nephroathy, Acidosis, Acute renal failure

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          Normal renal function and normal urinalysis results in an 81-year-old man deteriorated over a 6-month period following an ileostomy, associated with metabolic acidosis, persistent aciduria, proteinuria, and a urinary sediment that showed numerous red blood cells, granular casts, and ‘reactive’ epithelial cells with intracellular uric acid (UA) crystals. These also formed extensive UA casts. Oral sodium bicarbonate therapy completely reversed all of the abnormalities. Renal biopsy, while it failed to demonstrate significant tubular obstruction, showed evidence of extensive epithelial cell injury. It is suggested that intestinal losses of bicarbonate resulted in persistent excretion of an acidic urine which promoted UA crystal formation within renal tubules and in epithelial cells which then caused cellular injury and the release of cytokines, leading to an altered regulation of the renal blood flow. The importance of microscopic techniques in the diagnosis is stressed along with the significance for managing both acute and chronic renal failure.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Hyperuricemic acute renal failure.

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            Noninflammatory phagocytosis of monosodium urate monohydrate crystals by mouse macrophages. Implications for the control of joint inflammation in gout.

            We have hypothesized that the process of monocyte to macrophage differentiation may alter the inflammatory response of mononuclear phagocytes to the uptake of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals. Eight mouse monocyte/macrophage cell lines were arranged in increasing order of differentiation, as judged by expression of the macrophage markers F4/80 and BM 8 and by phagocytic capacity. Secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) in response to MSU was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The panel of monocyte/macrophage cell lines revealed a close linkage between the state of differentiation and the capacity of the cells to ingest MSU crystals. TNFalpha production, however, was not linked to phagocytic ability. Peak TNFalpha levels were synthesized by cells at an intermediate state of differentiation (3.2-14.1 ng/ml), whereas mature macrophages, which efficiently phagocytosed crystals, did not secrete TNFalpha. Mature cell lines produced TNFalpha when stimulated with zymosan (5.9-6.2 ng/ml), but this was abolished by coincubation with MSU crystals. Suppression of the zymosan response was not due to apoptosis or steric hindrance by MSU crystals. Culture supernatants from mature macrophages did not stimulate endothelial cell activation, in contrast to MSU-treated cells at an earlier stage of differentiation, which stimulated intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression on sEND endothelioma cells through the release of TNFalpha (inhibited 80.6% by anti-TNFa). We demonstrated that phagocytosis and TNFalpha production are distinct events in the response of mononuclear phagocytes to urate crystals, and these events can be distinguished at the level of macrophage differentiation. The noninflammatory removal of urate crystals by mature macrophages defines a new pathway that may be important in controlling the development of acute gout in patients with hyperuricemia.
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              Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and activation of activator protein 1 and nuclear factor kappaB transcription factors play central roles in interleukin-8 expression stimulated by monosodium urate monohydrate and calcium pyrophosphate crystals in monocytic cells.

              Monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals cause acute gout and pseudogout, respectively. Because acute gout and pseudogout appear to be dependent on interleukin-8 (IL-8)-induced neutrophil ingress, this study was undertaken to define and compare how MSU and CPPD crystals stimulate IL-8 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in mononuclear phagocytes. MSU and CPPD crystal-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction and IL-8 transcriptional activation were studied in human monocytic cells, using the THP-1 cell line. MSU and CPPD crystals (0.5 mg/ml) induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK-1)/ERK-2, and p38 MAPK pathways in THP-1 cells. Activation of the ERK-1/ERK-2 pathway was essential for MSU and CPPD crystal-induced IL-8 mRNA expression, whereas the p38 pathway played a greater role in IL-8 mRNA expression in response to CPPD crystals in comparison with MSU crystals. Both crystals induced the binding of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), including the NF-kappaB complex c-Rel/RelA, and activator protein 1 (AP-1, including N-terminal phosphorylated c-Jun) to the IL-8 promoter. Both crystals induced transcriptional activation of the IL-8 promoter, which was dependent on activation of c-Rel/RelA and AP-1. Activation of the NF-IL-6 transcription factor played a lesser role. Finally, crystal-induced IL-8 promoter activation was mediated by activation of the ERK-1/ERK-2 pathway, as demonstrated by transfection of dominant-negative raf-1. These results indicate that ERK-1/ ERK-2 signaling and transcriptional activation through AP-1 and NF-kappaB are essential for the induction of IL-8 expression in mononuclear phagocytes in response to CPPD and MSU crystals.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                August 2002
                02 August 2002
                : 22
                : 4
                : 372-375
                Pennsylvania State College of Medicine at the Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pa., USA
                65230 Am J Nephrol 2002;22:372–375
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 1, References: 27, Pages: 4
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/65230
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