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      Impact of cucurbit crop management techniques on the foraging behavior of honeybees and hoverflies in Morogoro, Tanzania


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          Poor agricultural practices have drastically threatened insect pollinators’ biodiversity. Little is known in Tanzania about how different agricultural practices affect pollinators’ foraging behavior. This study investigated the effects of the agroecological zone, season, cucurbit species and management practices on visitation frequency, visitation rate and time spent on cucurbit flowers by five pollinator species viz. Apis mellifera, Eristalinus megacephalus, Mesembrius caffer, Paragus borbonicus and Toxomerus floralis. The experiment was designed as a 5 × 3 × 3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. GAMOUR-Agroecology was tested against conventional practices and untreated control.


          This study revealed significant effects of agroecological zone × season × cucurbit species × management practice on pollinators’ visitation frequency ( p = 0.007) and time spent on flowers ( p = 0.005). Also, agroecological zone × season × cucurbit species × pollinator species significantly ( p < 0.0001) affected pollinators’ visitation frequency. Agroecological zones × season × cucurbit species × cucurbits management practices × pollinators significantly ( p = 0.001) affected pollinators’ visitation rate. Apis mellifera was the most frequent visitor in Cucurbita moschata plots treated with GAMOUR- Agroecology in the plateau zone, also, visited higher number of Cucumis sativus plots under GAMOUR-Agroecology practices in the mountainous zone during the October–November season. Furthermore, it has been found that pollinators spent much in cucurbit flowers on plots with GAMOUR-Agroecology practices and control.


          Pollinators’ foraging behavior were enhanced by GAMOUR-Agroecology practices. Therefore, this study recommended that cucurbit growers should consider management practices that positively influence pollinator foraging activities for sustainable cucurbit production.

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          Threats to an ecosystem service: pressures on pollinators

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            Ecological intensification to mitigate impacts of conventional intensive land use on pollinators and pollination

            Abstract Worldwide, human appropriation of ecosystems is disrupting plant–pollinator communities and pollination function through habitat conversion and landscape homogenisation. Conversion to agriculture is destroying and degrading semi‐natural ecosystems while conventional land‐use intensification (e.g. industrial management of large‐scale monocultures with high chemical inputs) homogenises landscape structure and quality. Together, these anthropogenic processes reduce the connectivity of populations and erode floral and nesting resources to undermine pollinator abundance and diversity, and ultimately pollination services. Ecological intensification of agriculture represents a strategic alternative to ameliorate these drivers of pollinator decline while supporting sustainable food production, by promoting biodiversity beneficial to agricultural production through management practices such as intercropping, crop rotations, farm‐level diversification and reduced agrochemical use. We critically evaluate its potential to address and reverse the land use and management trends currently degrading pollinator communities and potentially causing widespread pollination deficits. We find that many of the practices that constitute ecological intensification can contribute to mitigating the drivers of pollinator decline. Our findings support ecological intensification as a solution to pollinator declines, and we discuss ways to promote it in agricultural policy and practice.
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              Impacts of a pesticide on pollinator species richness at different spatial scales


                Author and article information

                BMC Ecol Evol
                BMC Ecol Evol
                BMC Ecology and Evolution
                BioMed Central (London )
                17 January 2024
                17 January 2024
                : 24
                : 9
                [1 ]Department of Crop Science and Horticulture, Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA), ( https://ror.org/00jdryp44) P.O. Box 3005, Chuo Kikuu, Morogoro, Tanzania
                [2 ]Research, Consultancy and Publication Unit, National Sugar Institute (NSI), ( https://ror.org/02wqsss46) P.O. Box 97, Kidatu-, Morogoro, Tanzania
                [3 ]Royal Museum for Central Africa, Invertebrates Section and JEMU, ( https://ror.org/001805t51) Leuvensesteenweg 13, B-3080 Tervuren, Belgium
                [4 ]Tanzania Tobacco Board, P.O. Box 227, Morogoro, Tanzania
                © The Author(s) 2024

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                : 18 May 2023
                : 11 January 2024
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                © BioMed Central Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2024

                gamour-agroecology,pollinators,visitation frequency,visitation rate


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