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      Comprehensive and Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Metamorphosis-Related Proteins in the Veined Rapa Whelk, Rapana venosa

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          Larval metamorphosis of the veined rapa whelk ( Rapana venosa) is a pelagic to benthic transition that involves considerable structural and physiological changes. Because metamorphosis plays a pivotal role in R. venosa commercial breeding and natural populations, the endogenous proteins that drive this transition attract considerable interest. This study is the first to perform a comprehensive and quantitative proteomic analysis related to metamorphosis in a marine gastropod. We analyzed the proteomes of competent R. venosa larvae and post-larvae, resulting in the identification of 5312 proteins, including 470 that were downregulated and 668 that were upregulated after metamorphosis. The differentially expressed proteins reflected multiple processes involved in metamorphosis, including cytoskeleton and cell adhesion, ingestion and digestion, stress response and immunity, as well as specific tissue development. Our data improve understanding of the physiological traits controlling R. venosa metamorphosis and provide a solid basis for further study.

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          Most cited references 42

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          Programmed cell death in animal development.

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            Addressing accuracy and precision issues in iTRAQ quantitation.

            iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative or absolute quantitation) is a mass spectrometry technology that allows quantitative comparison of protein abundance by measuring peak intensities of reporter ions released from iTRAQ-tagged peptides by fragmentation during MS/MS. However, current data analysis techniques for iTRAQ struggle to report reliable relative protein abundance estimates and suffer with problems of precision and accuracy. The precision of the data is affected by variance heterogeneity: low signal data have higher relative variability; however, low abundance peptides dominate data sets. Accuracy is compromised as ratios are compressed toward 1, leading to underestimation of the ratio. This study investigated both issues and proposed a methodology that combines the peptide measurements to give a robust protein estimate even when the data for the protein are sparse or at low intensity. Our data indicated that ratio compression arises from contamination during precursor ion selection, which occurs at a consistent proportion within an experiment and thus results in a linear relationship between expected and observed ratios. We proposed that a correction factor can be calculated from spiked proteins at known ratios. Then we demonstrated that variance heterogeneity is present in iTRAQ data sets irrespective of the analytical packages, LC-MS/MS instrumentation, and iTRAQ labeling kit (4-plex or 8-plex) used. We proposed using an additive-multiplicative error model for peak intensities in MS/MS quantitation and demonstrated that a variance-stabilizing normalization is able to address the error structure and stabilize the variance across the entire intensity range. The resulting uniform variance structure simplifies the downstream analysis. Heterogeneity of variance consistent with an additive-multiplicative model has been reported in other MS-based quantitation including fields outside of proteomics; consequently the variance-stabilizing normalization methodology has the potential to increase the capabilities of MS in quantitation across diverse areas of biology and chemistry.
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              Comparative study of three proteomic quantitative methods, DIGE, cICAT, and iTRAQ, using 2D gel- or LC-MALDI TOF/TOF.

               S Baek,  Albert Wu,  Weiwei Wu (2006)
              A comparative study on the three quantitative methods frequently used in proteomics, 2D DIGE (difference gel electrophoresis), cICAT (cleavable isotope-coded affinity tags) and iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification), was carried out. DIGE and cICAT are familiar techniques used in gel- and LC-based quantitative proteomics, respectively. iTRAQ is a new LC-based technique which is gradually gaining in popularity. A systematic comparison among these quantitative methods has not been reported. In this study, we conducted well-designed comparisons using a six-protein mixture, a reconstituted protein mixture (BSA spiked into human plasma devoid of six abundant proteins), and complex HCT-116 cell lysates as the samples. All three techniques yielded quantitative results with reasonable accuracy when the six-protein or the reconstituted protein mixture was used. In DIGE, accurate quantification was sometimes compromised due to comigration or partial comigration of proteins. The iTRAQ method is more susceptible to errors in precursor ion isolation, which could be manifested with increasing sample complexity. The quantification sensitivity of each method was estimated by the number of peptides detected for each protein. In this regard, the global-tagging iTRAQ technique was more sensitive than the cysteine-specific cICAT method, which in turn was as sensitive as, if not more sensitive than, the DIGE technique. Protein profiling on HCT-116 and HCT-116 p53 -/- cell lysates displayed limited overlapping among proteins identified by the three methods, suggesting the complementary nature of these methods.

                Author and article information

                Role: Academic Editor
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                15 June 2016
                June 2016
                : 17
                : 6
                [1 ]Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; songhao13@
                [2 ]University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: haiyanwang@ (H.-Y.W.); tzhang@ (T.Z.); Tel.: +86-532-8289-8557 (H.-Y.W.); +86-532-8289-8646 (T.Z.)
                © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license (


                Molecular biology

                digital gene expression, transcriptome, rapana venosa, gastropod, larva


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