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      Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management (submit here)

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      Therapeutic Options for the Management of Pompe Disease: Current Challenges and Clinical Evidence in Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management


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          Pompe disease is a genetic disorder produced by mutations in the GAA gene leading to absence or reduced expression of acid alpha-glucosidase, an enzyme that metabolizes the breakdown of glycogen into glucose. There are two main phenotypes, the infantile consisting of early onset severe weakness and cardiomyopathy, and the adult which is characterized by slowly progressive skeletal and respiratory muscle weakness. Enzymatic replacement therapy (ERT) has been available for Pompe disease for more than 15 years. Although the treatment has improved many aspects of the disease, such as prolonged survival through improved cardiomyopathy and acquisition of motor milestones in infants and slower progression rate in adults, ERT is far from being a cure as both infantile and adult patients continue to progress. This fact has prompted the development of improved or new enzymes and other treatments such as gene therapy or substrate reduction strategies. Here, we review the data obtained from randomized clinical trials but also from open-label studies published so far that have assessed the advantages and limitations of this therapy. Moreover, we also review the new therapeutic strategies that are under development and provide our opinion on which are the unmet needs for patients with this disease.

          Most cited references71

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          Characterization of pre- and post-treatment pathology after enzyme replacement therapy for Pompe disease.

          In Pompe disease, a genetic deficiency of lysosomal acid alpha-glucosidase, glycogen accumulates abnormally in the lysosomes of skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle, and contributes to clinically progressive and debilitating muscle weakness. The present study involved 8 infantile-onset Pompe patients, treated weekly with 10 mg/kg of recombinant human acid alpha-glucosidase (rhGAA). Muscle biopsies were obtained at baseline, 12 and 52 weeks post-treatment to establish an indicator of efficacy. Several histologic strategies were employed to characterize changes in pre- and post-treatment samples, including high-resolution light microscopy and digital histomorphometry, electron microscopy, capillary density and fiber type analysis, and confocal microscopy for satellite cell activation analysis. Histomorphometric analysis was performed on muscle samples to assess glycogen depletion in response to enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). The extent of glycogen clearance varied widely among these patient samples, and correlated well with clinical outcome. Low glycogen levels, mild ultrastructural damage, a high proportion of type I fibers, and young age at baseline were all features associated with good histologic response. There was no correlation between capillary density and glycogen clearance, and activated satellite cell levels were shown to be higher in post-treatment biopsies with poor histologic responses. This histopathologic study of infantile Pompe disease provides detailed insight into the cellular progression of the disease and its response to therapy while highlighting a number of methodologies which may be employed to assess regression or progression of the associated pathology. As enzyme replacement therapy becomes more prevalent for the treatment of lysosomal storage diseases, such evaluation of post-treatment pathology will likely become a more common occurrence in the daily practice of pathologists.
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            A randomized study of alglucosidase alfa in late-onset Pompe's disease.

            Pompe's disease is a metabolic myopathy caused by a deficiency of acid alpha glucosidase (GAA), an enzyme that degrades lysosomal glycogen. Late-onset Pompe's disease is characterized by progressive muscle weakness and loss of respiratory function, leading to early death. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of alglucosidase alfa, a recombinant human GAA, for the treatment of late-onset Pompe's disease. Ninety patients who were 8 years of age or older, ambulatory, and free of invasive ventilation were randomly assigned to receive biweekly intravenous alglucosidase alfa (20 mg per kilogram of body weight) or placebo for 78 weeks at eight centers in the United States and Europe. The two primary end points were distance walked during a 6-minute walk test and percentage of predicted forced vital capacity (FVC). At 78 weeks, the estimated mean changes from baseline in the primary end points favored alglucosidase alfa (an increase of 28.1+/-13.1 m on the 6-minute walk test and an absolute increase of 3.4+/-1.2 percentage points in FVC; P=0.03 and P=0.006, respectively). Similar proportions of patients in the two groups had adverse events, serious adverse events, and infusion-associated reactions; events that occurred only in patients who received the active study drug included anaphylactic reactions and infusion-associated reactions of urticaria, flushing, hyperhidrosis, chest discomfort, vomiting, and increased blood pressure (each of which occurred in 5 to 8% of the patients). In this study population, treatment with alglucosidase alfa was associated with improved walking distance and stabilization of pulmonary function over an 18-month period. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00158600.) Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Recombinant human acid [alpha]-glucosidase: major clinical benefits in infantile-onset Pompe disease.

              Pompe disease is a progressive metabolic neuromuscular disorder resulting from deficiency of lysosomal acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA). Infantile-onset Pompe disease is characterized by cardiomyopathy, respiratory and skeletal muscle weakness, and early death. The safety and efficacy of recombinant human (rh) GAA were evaluated in 18 patients with rapidly progressing infantile-onset Pompe disease. Patients were diagnosed at 6 months of age and younger and exhibited severe GAA deficiency and cardiomyopathy. Patients received IV infusions of rhGAA at 20 mg/kg (n = 9) or 40 mg/kg (n = 9) every other week. Analyses were performed 52 weeks after the last patient was randomized to treatment. All patients (100%) survived to 18 months of age. A Cox proportional hazards analysis demonstrated that treatment reduced the risk of death by 99%, reduced the risk of death or invasive ventilation by 92%, and reduced the risk of death or any type of ventilation by 88%, as compared to an untreated historical control group. There was no clear advantage of the 40-mg/kg dose with regard to efficacy. Eleven of the 18 patients experienced 164 infusion-associated reactions; all were mild or moderate in intensity. Recombinant human acid alpha-glucosidase is safe and effective for treatment of infantile-onset Pompe disease. Eleven patients experienced adverse events related to treatment, but none discontinued. The young age at which these patients initiated therapy may have contributed to their improved response compared to previous trials with recombinant human acid alpha-glucosidase in which patients were older.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                13 December 2022
                : 18
                : 1099-1115
                [1 ]The John Walton Muscular Dystrophy Research Center, Newcastle University Translational and Clinical Research Institute , Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK
                [2 ]Laboratori de Malalties Neuromusculars, Insitut de Recerca de l’Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau de Barcelona , Barcelona, Spain
                [3 ]Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER) , Barcelona, Spain
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jordi Diaz-Manera, The John Walton Muscular Dystrophy Research Center, Center for Life , Central Parkway, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE13BZ, UK, Email jordi.diaz-manera@Newcastle.ac.uk
                © 2022 Bolano-Diaz and Diaz-Manera.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                : 28 June 2022
                : 21 November 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, References: 75, Pages: 17

                glycogen storage disease type ii,pompe disease,enzyme replacement therapy,recombinant human acid alpha-glucosidase,genetic therapy,clinical trials


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