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Lead-free multilayer piezoceramic composites: the effect of co-sintering on electromechanical properties.

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      The macroscopic electromechanical behavior of lead-free multilayer composites was characterized from room temperature to 150 °C. The polar seed component consisted of a nonergodic relaxor, (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-7BaTiO3, with an electric-field-induced long range ferroelectric order, whereas the nonpolar matrix was an ergodic relaxor Bi0.5(Na0.75K0.25)0.5TiO3-6BiAlO3) that undergoes a reversible electric-field-induced macroscopic nonpolar-to-polar transition. Microstructural evidence of the effects of co-sinering are demonstrated through examination of grain size, interdiffusion and pore structure.. By manipulating the sintering interactions between the two constituents, namely diffusion paths and residual stresses, both internal mechanical and electrical fields, as well as compositional gradients can be used to enhance the unipolar strain over that expected by a rule of mixtures approximation, thereby improving the properties needed for application of such materials to actuator systems.

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      IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control
      IEEE transactions on ultrasonics, ferroelectrics, and frequency control
      Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
      May 08 2017
      28489535 10.1109/TUFFC.2017.2701882


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