+1 Recommend
1 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Prevalence and Determinants of Coronary and Aortic Calcifications Assessed by Chest CT in Renal Transplant Recipients

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Background: Coronary artery calcifications independently predict cardiovascular events (CVE) in the general population. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of coronary (CAC) and thoracic aorta (AoC) calcifications in renal transplant recipients (RTR). Methods: Consecutive RTR living in Belgium, with an isolated kidney graft functioning for more than 1 year, were asked to participate. They underwent a 16-slice spiral computerized tomography in order to measure calcium mass. Demographic, clinical, biochemical and urinary parameters were recorded. Results: We included 281 patients. CAC and AoC were detected in 81 and 85%, with geometric means (SD) of 52.2 (4.9) and 99.3 (8.2) mg, respectively. By multiple linear regression, independent predictors of both types of calcifications included older age, longer time on dialysis, a history of CVE, of multiple transplantations and of smoking. Other determinants of CAC were male gender, current statin use and history of parathyroidectomy, and other determinants of AoC included higher pulse pressure, shorter time under mycophenolate mofetil and current use of anti-vitamin-K. Conclusion: The prevalence of both CAC and AoC is substantial in RTR. We delineate independent determinants either common to both CAC and AoC or specific to one, and known as classic or chronic kidney disease related risk factors.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 22

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Premature coronary-artery atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus.

          Premature coronary artery disease is a major cause of illness and death in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, but little is known about the prevalence, extent, and causes of coronary-artery atherosclerosis. We used electron-beam computed tomography to screen for the presence of coronary-artery calcification in 65 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (mean [+/-SD] age, 40.3+/-11.6 years) and 69 control subjects (mean age, 42.7+/-12.6 years) with no history of coronary artery disease. When calcification was detected, the extent was measured by means of the Agatston score. The frequency of risk factors for coronary artery disease was compared in patients and controls, and the relation between the patients' clinical characteristics and the presence or absence of coronary-artery calcification was examined. The two groups were similar with respect to age, race, and sex. Coronary-artery calcification was more frequent in patients with lupus (20 of 65 patients) than in control subjects (6 of 69 subjects) (P=0.002). The mean calcification score was 68.9+/-244.2 in the patients and 8.8+/-41.8 (P<0.001) in controls. Levels of total, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were not elevated in patients with lupus, but levels of triglycerides (P=0.02) and homocysteine (P<0.001) were. Among patients with lupus, measures of disease activity were similar in those with and those without coronary-artery calcification, but those with calcification were more likely to be older (P<0.001) and male (P=0.008). In patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, the prevalence of coronary-artery atherosclerosis is elevated and the age at onset is reduced. Early detection of atherosclerosis may provide an opportunity for therapeutic intervention. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Advanced coronary and carotid arteriopathy in young adults with childhood-onset chronic renal failure.

            Cardiovascular mortality is excessive in young adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The factors contributing to ESRD-related vascular disease are incompletely understood. Young adults with childhood-onset chronic renal failure (CRF) are uniquely suited for risk factor assessment because of their long-term exposure at an age when vascular pathology in the general population is still minimal. We used novel noninvasive technologies to screen for coronary and carotid artery disease in 39 patients with ESRD aged 19 to 39 years with childhood-onset CRF presently treated by dialysis or renal transplantation. Coronary artery calcification burden was assessed by CT scan with ECG gating and the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid arteries by high-resolution ultrasound. Coronary artery calcifications were present in 92% of patients; calcium scores exceeded the 95th age- and sex-specific percentiles >10-fold on average. Carotid IMT was significantly increased compared with matched control subjects. Both coronary calcium scores and IMT were associated with cumulative dialysis and ESRD time and the cumulative serum calcium-phosphate product. Coronary calcium scores were strongly correlated with C-reactive protein and Chlamydia pneumoniae seropositivity, time-averaged mean serum parathyroid hormone, and plasma homocysteine. C-reactive protein and parathyroid hormone independently predicted coronary calcium accumulation. Smoking, obesity, and HbA1c were correlated with IMT in the control subjects but not in the patients. Young adults with childhood-onset CRF have a high prevalence of arteriopathy associated with indicators of microinflammation, hyperparathyroidism, calcium-phosphate overload, and hyperhomocysteinemia but not traditional atherogenic risk factors. These risk factors persist even after successful renal transplantation.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Using the coronary artery calcium score to predict coronary heart disease events: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

              Primary prevention of coronary heart disease is most appropriate for patients at relatively high risk. Measurement of coronary artery calcium has been proposed as a way to improve risk assessment, but it is unknown whether it adds predictive information to standard risk factor assessment. We systematically searched electronic databases for relevant articles published between January 1, 1980, and March 19, 2003, and hand searched bibliographies. We included studies that reported measuring the coronary artery calcium score by electron beam computed tomography in asymptomatic subjects and subsequent follow-up of those patients for coronary events and that presented score-specific relative risks, adjusted for established risk factors. Two abstractors verified inclusion criteria and abstracted data from each study. We estimated adjusted relative risks associated with 3 standard categories of coronary artery calcium scores (1-100, 101-400, and >400), compared with a score of 0, and used a random-effects model for meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of the 4 studies meeting inclusion criteria yielded a summary adjusted relative risk of 2.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.6-2.9) for a coronary artery calcium score of 1 to 100. Relative risk estimates for higher calcium scores were higher, ranging from 3.0 to 17.0 but varied significantly among studies. Subgroup analyses suggested that differences among studies in outcome adjudication (blinded or not), measurement of other risk factors (direct or by patient history), tomographic slice thickness (3 or 6 mm), and/or proportion of female study subjects may account for this heterogeneity. The coronary artery calcium score is an independent predictor of coronary heart disease events.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                July 2007
                16 May 2007
                : 27
                : 4
                : 329-335
                aNephrology, bRadiology, cMedical Informatics, Cliniques universitaires St-Luc, dEpidemiology and Biostatistics, Ecole de santé publique, Université catholique de Louvain, and eClinical Science and Applications, Philips Medical Systems, Brussels, Belgium
                102978 Am J Nephrol 2007;27:329–335
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, References: 31, Pages: 7
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research


                Comment on this article