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      Global, Regional, and National Levels and Trends in Burden of Oral Conditions from 1990 to 2017: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease 2017 Study

      GBD 2017 Oral Disorders Collaborators, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
      Journal of Dental Research
      SAGE Publications
      caries, periodontitis, edentulism, epidemiology, economic development, global health

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          Government and nongovernmental organizations need national and global estimates on the descriptive epidemiology of common oral conditions for policy planning and evaluation. The aim of this component of the Global Burden of Disease study was to produce estimates on prevalence, incidence, and years lived with disability for oral conditions from 1990 to 2017 by sex, age, and countries. In addition, this study reports the global socioeconomic pattern in burden of oral conditions by the standard World Bank classification of economies as well as the Global Burden of Disease Socio-demographic Index. The findings show that oral conditions remain a substantial population health challenge. Globally, there were 3.5 billion cases (95% uncertainty interval [95% UI], 3.2 to 3.7 billion) of oral conditions, of which 2.3 billion (95% UI, 2.1 to 2.5 billion) had untreated caries in permanent teeth, 796 million (95% UI, 671 to 930 million) had severe periodontitis, 532 million (95% UI, 443 to 622 million) had untreated caries in deciduous teeth, 267 million (95% UI, 235 to 300 million) had total tooth loss, and 139 million (95% UI, 133 to 146 million) had other oral conditions in 2017. Several patterns emerged when the World Bank’s classification of economies and the Socio-demographic Index were used as indicators of economic development. In general, more economically developed countries have the lowest burden of untreated dental caries and severe periodontitis and the highest burden of total tooth loss. The findings offer an opportunity for policy makers to identify successful oral health strategies and strengthen them; introduce and monitor different approaches where oral diseases are increasing; plan integration of oral health in the agenda for prevention of noncommunicable diseases; and estimate the cost of providing universal coverage for dental care.

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          Most cited references15

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          Ending the neglect of global oral health: time for radical action

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            The common risk factor approach: a rational basis for promoting oral health.

            Conventional oral health education is not effective nor efficient. Many oral health programmes are developed and implemented in isolation from other health programmes. This often leads, at best to a duplication of effort, or worse, conflicting messages being delivered to the public. In addition, oral health programmes tend to concentrate on individual behaviour change and largely ignore the influence of socio-political factors as the key determinants of health. Based upon the general principles of health promotion this paper presents a rationale for an alternative approach for oral health policy. The common risk factor approach addresses risk factors common to many chronic conditions within the context of the wider socio-environmental milieu. Oral health is determined by diet, hygiene, smoking, alcohol use, stress and trauma. As these causes are common to a number of other chronic diseases, adopting a collaborative approach is more rational than one that is disease specific. The common risk factor approach can be implemented in a variety of ways. Food policy development and the Health Promoting Schools initiative are used as examples of effective ways of promoting oral health.
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              Current perspective of the impact of smoking on the progression and treatment of periodontitis.

              This literature review provides an overview of the current scenario regarding the impact of smoking on the progression and treatment of periodontitis; clinical, microbiological and immunological data from studies from our and other groups are presented. In general, preclinical and clinical data are unanimous in demonstrating that smokers present increased susceptibility, greater severity and faster progression of periodontal disease compared with nonsmokers. The evidence further demonstrates that smokers lose more teeth and have a less favorable response to therapy than do nonsmokers. Although it is well established that smoking significantly impacts on the onset, progression and outcome of periodontal disease, the mechanisms involved remain unclear. More importantly, some of the reported deleterious effects of smoking on periodontal tissues have been reported to be reversible upon participation in smoking-cessation programs. Therefore, clinicians should strongly advise smokers to enroll in cessation strategies, even temporarily, in order to improve the overall outcome.

                Author and article information

                J Dent Res
                J. Dent. Res
                Journal of Dental Research
                SAGE Publications (Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA )
                2 March 2020
                April 2020
                : 99
                : 4
                : 362-373
                Author notes
                [*]E. Bernabe, Faculty of Dentistry, Oral and Craniofacial Sciences, King’s College London, Bessemer Road, London, SE5 9RS, UK. Email: eduardo.bernabe@ 123456kcl.ac.uk

                Collaborators are listed in the Contributing Authors section at the end of this article.

                Author information
                © The Author(s) 2020

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access page ( https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

                Clinical Reviews
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                caries,periodontitis,edentulism,epidemiology,economic development,global health


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