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      The phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor tadalafil has renoprotective effects in a rat model of chronic kidney disease

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          Abstract

          Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors are widely used to treat erectile dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptoms with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Recent studies have indicated the renoprotective effects of this class of compounds. Whether renoprotection depends on blood pressure reduction remains controversial. In this study, we investigated the renoprotective effects of the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor, tadalafil, in a rat model of high‐salt induced kidney injury with hypertension. Dahl salt‐sensitive rats were fed a normal diet, high‐salt (8% sodium chloride) diet, or high‐salt diet with oral administration of either low‐ or high‐dose tadalafil (1 and 10 mg kg −1 day −1, respectively). Serum creatinine, urinary protein, and blood pressure were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks, at which point the rats were examined for glomerular injury and fibrosis. PAI1 mRNA levels were also evaluated. After 8 weeks, blood pressure, serum creatinine, and urinary protein levels were significantly higher in the high‐salt group than those in the normal‐salt group. Serum creatinine and urinary protein were significantly lower in both tadalafil groups than those in the high‐salt group, while only high‐dose tadalafil affected blood pressure. In addition, glomerulosclerosis and α‐smooth muscle actin expression significantly decreased in both tadalafil treatment groups. PAI1 mRNA increased significantly in the high‐salt group but decreased in both tadalafil‐treated groups. Our results indicated that both low‐ and high‐dose tadalafil prevented fibrosis and glomerular injury in a chronic kidney disease rat model. Mechanistically, these effects may be associated with PAI1 expression and glomerular structure protection.

          Abstract

          A PDE5 inhibitor, Tadalafil is renoprotective by preventing glomerular injury and fibrosis from high blood pressure. This study suggest that Inhibition of PDE5 might be effective to delay the CKD progression.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Blood pressure predicts risk of developing end-stage renal disease in men and women.

          Blood pressure as a risk factor for development of end-stage renal disease has not been fully studied, particularly in women. We studied the development of end-stage renal disease from 1983 through 2000 in 98 759 subjects, 46 881 men and 51 878 women, 20 to 98 years of age, who were screened in 1983 in Okinawa, Japan. Data for all dialysis patients registered from 1983 to 2000 in Okinawa were used to identify the screened subjects in whom end-stage renal disease developed. In follow-up, 400 subjects, 231 men and 169 women, had end-stage renal disease. Age, body mass index, and adjusted relative risk for systolic and diastolic blood pressure for both men and women were measured. When these results were compared with an optimal blood pressure, the relative risk of development of end-stage renal disease for those with high-normal blood pressure and hypertension were significant in both men and women. Hypertension is a significant risk factor for development of end-stage renal disease not only in men but also in women. Control of blood pressure within normal levels should be stressed as a strategy to prevent end-stage renal disease in both men and women.
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            Identification of Cross-Species Shared Transcriptional Networks of Diabetic Nephropathy in Human and Mouse Glomeruli

            Murine models are valuable instruments in defining the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN), but they only partially recapitulate disease manifestations of human DN, limiting their utility. To define the molecular similarities and differences between human and murine DN, we performed a cross-species comparison of glomerular transcriptional networks. Glomerular gene expression was profiled in patients with early type 2 DN and in three mouse models (streptozotocin DBA/2, C57BLKS db/db, and eNOS-deficient C57BLKS db/db mice). Species-specific transcriptional networks were generated and compared with a novel network-matching algorithm. Three shared human–mouse cross-species glomerular transcriptional networks containing 143 (Human-DBA STZ), 97 (Human-BKS db/db), and 162 (Human-BKS eNOS −/− db/db) gene nodes were generated. Shared nodes across all networks reflected established pathogenic mechanisms of diabetes complications, such as elements of Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) signaling pathways. In addition, novel pathways not previously associated with DN and cross-species gene nodes and pathways unique to each of the human–mouse networks were discovered. The human–mouse shared glomerular transcriptional networks will assist DN researchers in selecting mouse models most relevant to the human disease process of interest. Moreover, they will allow identification of new pathways shared between mice and humans.
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              Total nitric oxide production is low in patients with chronic renal disease.

              A deficiency of the endogenous vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated as a potential cause of hypertension in chronic renal disease (CRD) patients. This study was conducted to determine whether 24-hour NOX (NO2 and NO3) excretion (a qualitative index of total NO production) is reduced in patients with CRD. Measurements were made in 13 CRD patients and 9 normotensive healthy controls after 48 hours on a controlled low-NOX diet. Urine was collected over the second 24-hour period for analysis of 24-hour NOX, and cGMP and blood drawn at the completion. Plasma levels of arginine (the substrate for endogenous renal NO synthesis), citrulline (substrate for renal arginine synthesis), and the endogenous NO synthesis inhibitor asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) and its inert isomer and symmetrical dimethylarginine (SDMA) were also determined. Systolic blood pressure was higher in CRD patients (12 of whom were already on antihypertensive therapy) than in controls (P < 0.05). Twenty-four-hour urinary NOX excretion was low in CRD patients compared with controls despite similar dietary NO intake, suggesting that net endogenous NO production is decreased in renal disease. In contrast, the 24-hour urinary cGMP did not correlate with UNOXV. Plasma citrulline was increased in CRD patients, possibly reflecting reduced conversion of citrulline to arginine. Plasma arginine was not different, and plasma ADMA levels were elevated in CRD versus controls, changes that would tend to lower NO synthase. These results suggest that NO production is low in CRD patients and may contribute to hypertension and disease progression in CRD.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                yhotta@phar.nagoya-cu.ac.jp
                Journal
                Physiol Rep
                Physiol Rep
                10.1002/(ISSN)2051-817X
                PHY2
                physreports
                Physiological Reports
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                2051-817X
                05 September 2020
                September 2020
                : 8
                : 17 ( doiID: 10.1002/phy2.v8.17 )
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Department of Hospital Pharmacy Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences Nagoya City University Nagoya Japan
                [ 2 ] Department of Experimental Pathology and Tumor Biology Graduate School of Medical Sciences Nagoya City University Nagoya Japan
                [ 3 ] Department of Clinical Pharmaceutics Graduate School of Medical Sciences Nagoya City University Nagoya Japan
                [ 4 ] Center for Joint Research Facilities Support Fijita Health University Toyoake Japan
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence

                Yuji Hotta, Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 3‐1 Tanabe do‐ri, Mizuho‐ku, Nagoya 467‐8603, Japan.

                Email: yhotta@ 123456phar.nagoya-cu.ac.jp

                Article
                PHY214556
                10.14814/phy2.14556
                7503090
                32889777
                © 2020 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 3, Pages: 9, Words: 4681
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Aichi Kidney Foundation , open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100007331;
                Categories
                Original Research
                Original Research
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                September 2020
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:5.9.1 mode:remove_FC converted:22.09.2020

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