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      Noninvasive beat-to-beat finger arterial pressure monitoring during orthostasis: a comprehensive review of normal and abnormal responses at different ages

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          Over the past 30 years, noninvasive beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) monitoring has provided great insight into cardiovascular autonomic regulation during standing. Although traditional sphygmomanometric measurement of BP may be sufficient for detection of sustained orthostatic hypotension, it fails to capture the complexity of the underlying dynamic BP and heart rate responses. With the emerging use of noninvasive beat-to-beat BP monitoring for the assessment of orthostatic BP control in clinical and population studies, various definitions for abnormal orthostatic BP patterns have been used. Here, age-related changes in cardiovascular control in healthy subjects will be reviewed to define the spectrum of the most important abnormal orthostatic BP patterns within the first 180 s of standing. Abnormal orthostatic BP responses can be defined as initial orthostatic hypotension (a transient systolic BP fall of >40 mmHg within 15 s of standing), delayed BP recovery (an inability of systolic BP to recover to a value of >20 mmHg below baseline at 30 s after standing) and sustained orthostatic hypotension (a sustained decline in systolic BP of ≥20 mmHg occurring 60-180 s after standing). In the evaluation of patients with light-headedness, pre(syncope), (unexplained) falls or suspected autonomic dysfunction, it is essential to distinguish between normal cardiovascular autonomic regulation and these abnormal orthostatic BP responses. The prevalence, clinical relevance and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of these patterns differ significantly across the lifespan. Initial orthostatic hypotension is important for identifying causes of syncope in younger adults, whereas delayed BP recovery and sustained orthostatic hypotension are essential for evaluating the risk of falls in older adults.

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          Most cited references66

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          Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, neurally mediated syncope and the postural tachycardia syndrome.

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            Fifteen years experience with finger arterial pressure monitoring: assessment of the technology.

            We review the Finapres technology, embodied in several TNO-prototypes and in the Ohmeda 2300 and 2300e Finapres NIBP. Finapres is an acronym for FINger Arterial PRESsure, the device delivers a continuous finger arterial pressure waveform. Many papers report on the accuracy of the device in comparison with intra-arterial or with noninvasive but intermittent blood pressure measurements. We compiled the results of 43 such papers and found systolic, diastolic and mean accuracies, in this order, ranging from -48 to 30 mmHg, from -20 to 18 mmHg, and from -13 to 25 mmHg. Weighted for the number of subjects included pooled accuracies were -0.8 (SD 11.9), -1.6 (8.3) and -1.6 (7.6) mmHg respectively. Subdividing the pooled group according to criteria such as reference blood pressure, place of application, and prototype or commercial device we found no significant differences in mean differences or SD. Measurement at the finger allows uninterrupted recordings of long duration. The transmission of the pressure pulse along the arm arteries, however, causes distortion of the pulse waveform and depression of the mean blood pressure level. These effects can be reduced by appropriate filtering, and upper arm 'return-to-flow' calibration to bring accuracy and precision within AAMI limits. For the assessment of beat-to-beat changes in blood pressure and assessment of blood pressure variability Finapres proved a reliable alternative for invasive measurements when mean and diastolic pressures are concerned. Differences in systolic pressure are larger and reach statistical significance but are not of clinical relevance. Finger arteries are affected by contraction and dilatation in relation to psychological and physical (heat, cold, blood loss, orthostasis) stress. Effects of these phenomena are reduced by the built-in Physiocal algorithm. However, full smooth muscle contraction should be avoided in the awake patient by comforting the patient, and covering the hand. Arterial state can be monitored by observing the behaviour of the Physiocal algorithm. We conclude that Finapres accuracy and precision usually suffice for reliable tracking of changes in blood pressure. Diagnostic accuracy may be achieved with future application of corrective measures.
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              Baroreflex sensitivity: measurement and clinical implications.

              Alterations of the baroreceptor-heart rate reflex (baroreflex sensitivity, BRS) contribute to the reciprocal reduction of parasympathetic activity and increase of sympathetic activity that accompany the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the measurement of the baroreflex is a source of valuable information in the clinical management of cardiac disease patients, particularly in risk stratification. This article briefly recalls the pathophysiological background of baroreflex control, and reviews the most relevant methods that have been developed so far for the measurement of BRS. They include three "classic" methods: (i) the use of vasoactive drugs, particularly the alpha-adrenoreceptor agonist phenylephrine, (ii) the Valsalva maneuver, which produces a natural challenge for the baroreceptors by voluntarily increasing intrathoracic and abdominal pressure through straining, and (iii) the neck chamber technique, which allows a selective activation/deactivation of carotid baroreceptors by application of a negative/positive pressure to the neck region. Two more recent methods based on the analysis of spontaneous oscillations of systolic arterial pressure and RR interval are also reviewed: (i) the sequence method, which analyzes the relationship between increasing/decreasing ramps of blood pressure and related increasing/decreasing changes in RR interval through linear regression, and (ii) spectral methods, which assess the relationship (in terms of gain) between specific oscillatory components of the two signals. The limitations of the coherence criterion for the computation of spectral BRS are discussed, and recent proposals for overcoming them are presented. Most relevant clinical applications of BRS measurement are finally reviewed with particular reference to patients with myocardial infarction and heart failure.

                Author and article information

                Journal of Internal Medicine
                J Intern Med
                December 2017
                December 2017
                July 10 2017
                : 282
                : 6
                : 468-483
                [1 ]Department of Internal Medicine; University Medical Center Groningen; University of Groningen; Groningen The Netherlands
                [2 ]Department of Medical Physics; Mercer's Institute for Successful Ageing; St James's Hospital; Dublin Ireland
                [3 ]Department of Medical Gerontology; The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA); Lincoln Gate; Trinity College; Dublin Ireland
                [4 ]Neurology Department; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center; Harvard Medical School; Boston MA USA
                [5 ]Department of Pulmonary Diseases; VU University Medical Center; Amsterdam The Netherlands
                [6 ]Heart Failure Research Center; Laboratory for Clinical Cardiovascular Physiology; Academic Medical Center; Amsterdam The Netherlands
                [7 ]Mercer's Institute for Successful Ageing; St James's Hospital; Dublin Ireland
                [8 ]Department of Internal Medicine; Academic Medical Center; Amsterdam The Netherlands
                © 2017




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