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      Influence of Cholecalciferol Supplementation in Hemodialysis Patients on Monocyte Subsets: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial


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          Background/Aims: Although most hemodialysis patients share a significant 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] deficiency, supplementation is controversially discussed. A potential influence on monocyte and T lymphocyte dysfunction advocates blood level-adapted supplementation as recommended by K/DOQI guidelines. This was a prospective double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial examining immune effects of 12 weeks of cholecalciferol supplementation. Methods: We initiated serum level-adapted de novo cholecalciferol supplementation in 38 hemodialysis patients. Outcome measures were: monocyte subset cell counts (CD14+CD16++ vs. CD14++CD16+ vs. CD14++CD16-), lymphocyte Th1/Th2 differentiation frequencies, serum inflammatory proteins CRP and TNFα, parathyroid hormone (PTH), FGF-23, and α-Klotho. Results: At baseline, the mean 25(OH)D serum level in the study population was 31.7 ± 14.3 nmol/l, and only 3% of patients had levels within the normal range. At 12 weeks, 25(OH)D levels were normalized in the verum group (87.8 ± 22.3 vs. placebo 24.6 ± 8.0 nmol/l, p < 0.0001). In parallel, 1,25(OH)<sub>2</sub>D levels increased in the verum group. Monocyte subset cell counts as well as Th1 and Th2 lymphocyte frequencies did not change significantly after 12 weeks of cholecalciferol supplementation. There was also no significant difference in PTH, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphate, TNFα, FGF-23, α-Klotho and CRP levels. Conclusions: Oral cholecalciferol supplementation according to the K/DOQI recommendations normalizes 25(OH)D levels without relevant side effects such as hyperphosphatemia or hypercalcemia. However, beneficial pleiotropic effects on monocyte subset cell counts, T cell differentiation, or cytokine production could not be confirmed at least at the used dosage. PTH and FGF23 levels were not affected during cholecalciferol administration.

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          Prevalence of calcidiol deficiency in CKD: a cross-sectional study across latitudes in the United States.

          Recent Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines have raised concerns of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, or calcidiol, insufficiency and deficiency in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not yet on dialysis therapy; however, no cross-sectional study across latitudes has been performed to support this assertion. Baseline screening data from a prospective study were used to determine calcidiol levels in subjects with moderate to severe CKD not yet on dialysis therapy from 12 geographically diverse regions of the United States. Calcidiol deficiency is defined as levels less than 10 ng/mL (< 25 nmol/L), and insufficiency, as levels of 10 to 30 ng/mL (25 to 75 nmol/L). Two hundred one subjects with a mean age 65 +/- 13 years and calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 27 +/- 11 mL/min (0.45 mL/s) were evaluated. Overall mean calcidiol level was 19.4 +/- 13.6 ng/mL (48 +/- 34 nmol/L), with a range of 0 to 65 ng/mL (0 to 162 nmol/L). Only 29% and 17% of subjects with moderate and severe CKD had sufficient levels, respectively. Mean calcidiol levels were less than sufficient levels in all geographic locations tested. Multivariate analysis found log calcidiol level correlated with calcium level (P = 0.016), log calcitriol level (P = 0.024), sex (P = 0.041), geographic location (P = 0.045), and inverse intact parathyroid hormone level (P = 0.013), but not calculated GFR or phosphorous level. Calcidiol levels changed modestly in 18 patients who had calcidiol levels measured in winter and late summer after confirmed exposure to sunlight, with mean calcidiol levels of 17.9 +/- 11.7 to 21.2 +/- 10.0 ng/mL (45 +/- 29 to 53 +/- 25 nmol/L; P = 0.015). This cross-sectional cohort study found a high prevalence of calcidiol deficiency and insufficiency in patients with moderate and severe CKD not on dialysis therapy regardless of geographic location.
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            Vitamin D Insufficiency and Deficiency in Chronic Kidney Disease

            Background: Kidney disease has been identified as a risk factor for vitamin D deficiency in hospitalized patients, and low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D have been suggested to be a risk factor for hyperparathyroidism in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, little is known about the magnitude of vitamin D deficiency in patients with CKD living in the United States. Methods: In this regard, we examined the levels of 25(OH)D in 43 patients with CKD and serum creatinine between 1 and 5 mg/dl (calculated glomerular filtration rate 111–11 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 ) as well as in 103 patients undergoing hemodialysis. Results: In the predialysis patients, we found that 37 of the 43 patients (86%) had suboptimal levels of vitamin D (<30 ng/ml). Regression analysis indicated that there was a negative correlation between 25(OH)D and intact parathyroid hormone (PTH). Alkaline phosphatase showed a similar but less sensitive relationship. Serum albumin levels correlated with 25(OH)D levels. In contrast to findings reported in normal individuals, the levels of calcitriol correlated with those of 25(OH)D in the patients with CKD. In the group undergoing maintenance hemodialyis, we found that 97% of the patients had vitamin D levels in the suboptimal range, and there was no correlation of 25(OH)D levels with either PTH or serum albumin values. These data indicate that vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are highly prevalent in patients with CKD and may play a role in the development of hyperparathyroidism. The functional significance of low levels of 25(OH)D in patients with stage 5 CKD remains to be determined.
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              Bone metabolism and disease in chronic kidney disease


                Author and article information

                Nephron Clin Pract
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                November 2013
                29 August 2013
                : 123
                : 3-4
                : 209-219
                aInternal Medicine II, Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg Medical Centre, Halle, and bInternal Medicine IV, University of Saarland Medical Centre, Homburg, Germany
                Author notes
                *Dr. med. Eric Seibert, Martin Luther University Medical Centre, Internal Medicine II, Nephrology, Hypertension, Rheumatology, Endocrinology, Ernst-Grube-Strasse 40, DE-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany), E-Mail eric.seibert@medizin.uni-halle.de
                354717 Nephron Clin Pract 2013;123:209-219
                © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 07 December 2012
                : 24 July 2013
                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 4, Pages: 11
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Immune system,Hemodialysis patients,Cholecalciferol supplementation,25(OH)D deficiency


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