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      Security and Attitudes Toward Globalization: A Multilevel Analysis

      research-article
      * , a , , a , b
      Journal of Social and Political Psychology
      PsychOpen
      globalization, attitudes, economic security, cultural security, Human Development Index

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          Abstract

          Globalization implicates a number of social psychological processes and outcomes, including openness to ideas, products, and people from outside one’s national boundaries. Drawing from theory and research on intergroup threat, the researchers posited that people will be more open to connections between their nation and others if they feel their economic situation and culture are relatively secure. They found some support for these hypotheses in 2 sets of archival survey responses collected by the Pew Global Attitudes Project in 2002 (40 countries; N = 34,073) and 2009 (25 countries; N = 22,500). Personal economic security and perceived national economic security were associated with more positive attitudes toward globalization in both survey years. However, country-level variables—development status (as indexed by the United Nations’ Human Development Index) and aggregated economic and cultural security—moderated the individual-level effects in several ways. Individual perceptions of national economic security more strongly predicted attitudes toward globalization in more favourable climates (e.g., in more developed countries, and at higher levels of country-level national economic security). Individual-level cultural security was positively associated with attitudes toward globalization in countries with higher levels of socioeconomic development, but negatively related to those attitudes in less developed nations. The results provide some new perspectives on individual and collective factors that inform the perceived benefits of globalization.

          Abstract

          Background

          As the world becomes more connected—economically, culturally, politically, and technologically—there is a need to understand the factors underlying people’s openness (or opposition) to various aspects of globalization (e.g., international trade, travel, and the availability of foreign products).

          Why was this study done?

          Whereas attitudes toward globalization are often quite positive, many people around the world feel that their “way of life” needs to be protected. In social psychology, it is well-established that when people feel threatened, economically and/or culturally, they are more likely to be negatively inclined to at least one aspect of globalization—that is, immigration. In the present study, the researchers hypothesized that this relationship would also help explain attitudes toward globalization more broadly. Specifically, they proposed that attitudes toward globalization would be more positive when people feel a sense of economic security—in their own income and job, as well as in their nation’s economic situation—and cultural security (i.e., when people do not feel that their way of life needs to be protected from foreign influence). The researchers also addressed the role of the socioeconomic climate of countries in which people live, as indicated by the United Nations’ Human Development Index (HDI).

          What did the researchers do and find?

          The researchers analyzed data collected by the Pew Global Attitudes Project, comprising the responses of 34,073 individuals from 42 countries in 2002, and 22,500 people from 25 countries in 2009. Consistent with expectations, people expressed more favourable attitudes toward globalization when they felt relatively satisfied with their personal economic situation and felt that the economic situation and prospects of their nation were relatively good. Averaged at the country level, perceived national economic security (in 2002) and perceived personal economic security (in 2009) were associated with more positive attitudes toward globalization. Two additional effects showed that the relationship between perceived security and openness toward aspects of globalization depends on the socioeconomic status of the country: (a) feelings of national economic security were more positively associated with attitudes toward globalization for individuals in higher-HDI countries; and (b) the relationship between feelings of cultural security and attitudes toward globalization was negative in lower-HDI countries, and positive in higher-HDI countries.

          What do these findings mean?

          These findings confirm that a sense of economic security, at both personal and collective levels, was associated with people’s inclination to say that globalization was a “good thing” for them and their family. They suggest that economic security (or threat) is more strongly related to social attitudes in more socioeconomically developed countries. The way that feelings of cultural security may inform openness to globalization also depends on socioeconomic development. The results contribute to analyses of sociopolitical dynamics in the context of recent events (e.g., “Brexit”), which have been taken by some to signal a new era of “deglobalization.”

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          Most cited references17

          • Record: found
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          Intergroup threat and outgroup attitudes: a meta-analytic review.

          This article examines the relationship between intergroup threat and negative outgroup attitudes. We first qualitatively review the intergroup threat literature, describing the shift from competing theories toward more integrated approaches, such as the integrated threat theory (ITT; W. G. Stephan and Stephan, 2000). The types of threats discussed include: realistic threat, symbolic threat, intergroup anxiety, negative stereotypes, group esteem threat, and distinctiveness threat. We then conducted a quantitative meta-analysis examining the relationships between various intergroup threats and outgroup attitudes. The meta-analysis, involving 95 samples, revealed that 5 different threat types had a positive relationship with negative outgroup attitudes. Additionally, outgroup status moderated some of these relationships. Implications and future directions are considered.
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            Consumer Ethnocentrism: Construction and Validation of the CETSCALE

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              Using SAS PROC MIXED to Fit Multilevel Models, Hierarchical Models, and Individual Growth Models

              J. Singer (1998)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JSPP
                J Soc Polit Psych
                Journal of Social and Political Psychology
                J. Soc. Polit. Psych.
                PsychOpen
                2195-3325
                09 December 2020
                2020
                : 8
                : 2
                : 805-822
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Psychology, Saint Mary’s University , Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
                [b ]Higher School of Economics, National Research University , Moscow, Russia
                [3]Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom
                Author notes
                [* ]Department of Psychology, Saint Mary’s University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H C3C. jim.cameron@ 123456smu.ca
                Article
                jspp.v8i2.418
                10.5964/jspp.v8i2.418
                1140c503-fdd5-40bc-b518-9343973f5d86
                Copyright @ 2020

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 4.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 20 August 2014
                : 19 May 2018
                Categories
                Original Research Reports

                Psychology
                globalization,attitudes,economic security,cultural security,Human Development Index
                Psychology
                globalization, attitudes, economic security, cultural security, Human Development Index

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