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      The regenerative role of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) in plastic and reconstructive surgery : ADSC and tissue regeneration

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          The potential use of stem cell-based therapies for the repair and regeneration of various tissues and organs offers a paradigm shift in plastic and reconstructive surgery. The use of either embryonic stem cells (ESC) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) in clinical situations is limited because of regulations and ethical considerations even though these cells are theoretically highly beneficial. Adult mesenchymal stem cells appear to be an ideal stem cell population for practical regenerative medicine. Among these cells, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) have the potential to differentiate the mesenchymal, ectodermal and endodermal lineages and are easy to harvest. Additionally, adipose tissue yields a high number of ADSC per volume of tissue. Based on this background knowledge, the purpose of this review is to summarise and describe the proliferation and differentiation capacities of ADSC together with current preclinical data regarding the use of ADSC as regenerative tools in plastic and reconstructive surgery.

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          Most cited references130

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          The tumorigenicity of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells.

          The unique abilities of human pluripotent stem cells to self-renew and to differentiate into cells of the three germ layers make them an invaluable tool for the future of regenerative medicine. However, the same properties also make them tumorigenic, and therefore hinder their clinical application. Hence, the tumorigenicity of human embryonic stem cells (HESCs) has been extensively studied. Until recently, it was assumed that human induced pluripotent stem cells (HiPSCs) would behave like their embryonic counterparts in respect to their tumorigenicity. However, a rapidly accumulating body of evidence suggests that there are important genetic and epigenetic differences between these two cell types, which seem to influence their tumorigenicity.
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            Comparison of proliferative and multilineage differentiation potential of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from umbilical cord and bone marrow.

            Human umbilical cord perivascular cells (HUCPVCs) have been shown to have a high proliferative potential and the capacity to differentiate into an osteogenic phenotype. HUCPVCs have thus been considered a possible extra-embryonic mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) source for cell-based therapies. To assess this potential, we compared HUCPVCs to the "gold standard" bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) with respect to their proliferation, differentiation, and transfection capacities. HUCPVCs showed a higher proliferative potential than BMSCs and were capable of osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation. Interestingly, osteogenic differentiation of HUCPVCs proceeded more rapidly than BMSCs. Additionally, HUCPVCs expressed higher levels of CD146, a putative MSC marker, relative to BMSCs. HUCPVCs showed comparable transfection efficiency as BMSCs using a nucleofection method but were more amenable to transfection with liposomal methods (FuGENE). Gene array analysis showed that HUCPVCs also expressed Wnt signaling pathway genes that have been implicated in the regulation of MSCs. The similar characteristics between HUCPVCs and MSCs support the applicability of HUCPVCs for cell-based therapies. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.
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              Wound healing effect of adipose-derived stem cells: a critical role of secretory factors on human dermal fibroblasts.

              Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are a population of pluripotent cells, which have characteristics similar to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Whereas ADSCs have potential applications for the repair and regeneration of various damaged tissues, few studies have dealt with the effect of ADSCs on fibroblasts, which play a key role in skin biology. In this study, we investigated the possible roles of ADSCs in skin wound healing process, especially in the aspect of fibroblast activation-proliferation, collagen synthesis and migratory properties. ADSCs promoted human dermal fibroblast (HDF) proliferation, not only by cell-to-cell direct contact, which was confirmed by co-culture experiment, but also by paracrine activation through secretory factors, resolved by transwell co-culture and culturing with conditioned medium of ADSCs (ADSC-CM). ADSC-CM enhanced the secretion of type I collagen in HDFs by regulating the mRNA levels of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins: up-regulation of collagen type I, III and fibronectin and down-regulation of MMP-1. Moreover, ADSC-CM showed stimulatory effect on migration of HDFs in in vitro wound healing models. Additional to those in vitro evidences, wound healing effect of ADSCs was also verified with in vivo animal study, resulted that ADSCs significantly reduced the wound size and accelerated the re-epithelialization from the edge. Collectively, these data suggest that ADSC is constitutionally well suited for dermal wound healing and secretory factors derived from ADSCs promote wound healing via HDFs and ADSCs can be used for the treatment of photoaging and wound healing.

                Author and article information

                International Wound Journal
                Int Wound J
                February 2017
                February 2017
                February 01 2016
                : 14
                : 1
                : 112-124
                [1 ]Reconstructive Surgery & Regenerative Medicine Group, Institute of Life Sciences (ILS); Swansea University Medical School; Swansea UK
                [2 ]Welsh Centre for Burns & Plastic Surgery; ABMU Health Board; Swansea UK
                [3 ]UCL Centre for Nanotechnology and Regenerative Medicine; University College London; London UK
                [4 ]Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery; Stanford University Medical Centre; Stanford CA USA
                [5 ]Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery; Royal Devon & Exeter Hospital; Exeter UK
                [6 ]Department of Plastic Surgery; Royal Free NHS Foundation Trust; London UK
                © 2016




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