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      Management of symptomatic caliceal diverticular calculi: Minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy versus flexible ureterorenoscopy

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          To retrospectively evaluate appropriate treatment for patients with symptomatic caliceal diverticular calculi, by comparing the therapeutic outcomes for those undergoing minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL) and flexible ureterorenoscopy (F-URS).


          From March 2009 to May 2014, 36 consecutive patients with caliceal diverticular calculi were divided into 2 groups: 21 patients underwent MPCNL, and 15 were treated by F-URS. All procedures were performed by one surgical group, which ensured relatively constant parameters. Patient characteristics, operative time, hospital stay after surgery, stone-free rate, symptomatic improvement rate, complications, diverticular obliteration, and stone composition were analyzed retrospectively in the 2 groups.


          Patient preoperative variables were comparable between the two groups, with no significant difference ( P > 0.05). Mean operative time was 136.9 ± 22.8 min in the MPCNL group and 117.3 ± 24.3 min in the F-URS group ( P = 0.019). Hospital stay was significantly longer in the MPCNL group than in the F-URS group (9.4 ± 3.1 vs. 6.9 ± 2.1 days, P = 0.010). The stone-free rates after MPCNL and F-URS were 90.5% (19/21) and 60.0% (9/15), respectively ( P = 0.046). Additionally, 71.4% (15/21) of patients in the MPCNL group and 46.7% (7/15) of patients in the F-URS group had symptomatic improvement at the 6-month follow-up ( P = 0.175); the rates of complications in the 2 groups were 19.0% (4/21) and 13.3% (2/15), respectively ( P = 0.650). Complete diverticular obliteration was achieved in 16 (76.2%) cases in the MPCNL group and 5 (33.3%) cases in the F-URS group ( P = 0.017). The distributions of calcium oxalate and hydroxyapatite in the stones were 66.7% (14/21) and 33.3% (7/21), respectively, in the MPCNL group; however, the distributions in the F-URS group were 46.7% (7/15) and 53.3% (8/15), respectively ( P = 0.310).


          MPCNL is an effective method for the treatment of caliceal diverticular calculi. However, F-URS is an alternative technique in selected patients with a patent infundibulum, despite lower stone-free rates than with MPCNL. Fulguration of the diverticular lining with a high-power holmium laser and permitting the cavity to collapse are useful to increase the chance of diverticular obliteration.

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          Complications in percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

          This review focuses on a step-by-step approach to percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) and its complications and management. Based on institutional and personal experience with >1000 patients treated by PNL, we reviewed the literature (Pubmed search) focusing on technique, type, and incidence of complications of the procedure. Complications during or after PNL may be present with an overall complication rate of up to 83%, including extravasation (7.2%), transfusion (11.2-17.5%), and fever (21.0-32.1%), whereas major complications, such as septicaemia (0.3-4.7%) and colonic (0.2-0.8%) or pleural injury (0.0-3.1%) are rare. Comorbidity (i.e., renal insufficiency, diabetes, gross obesity, pulmonary disease) increases the risk of complications. Most complications (i.e., bleeding, extravasation, fever) can be managed conservatively or minimally invasively (i.e., pleural drain, superselective renal embolisation) if recognised early. The most important consideration for achieving consistently successful outcomes in PNL with minimal major complications is the correct selection of patients. A well-standardised technique and postoperative follow-up are mandatory for early detection of complications.
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            Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in infants and preschool age children: experience with a new technique.

            To develop a less invasive method for performing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) with the intent of decreasing the morbidity of the procedure in young children. A novel percutaneous renal access technique ("mini-perc") was developed using an 11F peel-away vascular access sheath. Tract dilation and insertion of the sheath into the collecting system was performed with a single pass over an access wire. PCNL was performed using pediatric instruments and electrohydraulic lithotripsy. Sheath design improvements were implemented that make it specific for pediatric PCNL. Eleven procedures have been performed with the 11F sheath. Patient age ranged from 2 to 6 years (mean 3.4) and weight from 5 to 24 kg (mean 12.5). The average stone burden was 1.2 cm2. Mean procedure time, estimated blood loss, and length of hospitalization were 203 minutes, 25 mL, and 6 days, respectively. Six (85%) of 7 patients are currently stone free with an average follow-up of 12 weeks. No patient required transfusion, developed urosepsis, or had a procedure-related complication. One procedure was performed in an outpatient setting with no postoperative nephrostomy tube. The 11F "mini-perc" technique was successful in rendering 85% of patients stone free with minimal morbidity. Its advantages over obtaining access with standard 24 to 34F access sheaths include a smaller skin incision, single-step dilation and sheath placement, good working access for pediatric instruments, variable length, and lower cost. In addition, the hypothesized decrease in renal and body wall trauma may result in less pain, reduced severity or risk of complications, and shorter hospital stays including the possibility of performing "tubeless" outpatient PCNLs. Further study is needed to confirm these possibilities.
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              Minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy with multiple mini tracts in a single session in treating staghorn calculi.

              There has been continuing controversy regarding multiple tracts in a percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) session that may bring more complications, especially severe bleeding need for transfusion, even nephrectomy. Little tracts may bring less trauma to renal parenchyma than standard PCNL tracts. We carried minimally invasive PCNL (MPCNL) in treating staghorn calculi with multiple 16Fr percutaneous tracts in a single session, in an attempt to get high stone free with little trauma, and compared the morbidity of standard PCNL procedures in a prospective trial. A total of 54 consecutive patients with staghorn calculi were prospectively randomized for MPCNL (29) and PCNL (25). The size and location of stone, operative parameters, number of tracts, stone-free rate, operating time, hospital stay and complications were analyzed. In MPCNL group, a total of 67 percutaneous tracts were established in 29 renal units, while 28 tracts in 25 renal units in PCNL group. Compared to PCNL, MPCNL was associated with higher clearance rate (89.7 vs. 68%, p = 0.049), less chance need for adjunctive procedure of SWL or second-look PCNL (24.1 vs. 60%, p = 0.007), while a similar complication rate (37.9 vs. 52%, p = 0.300). In conclusion, with the development of instruments and increased experience, judiciously made multiple percutaneous tracts in a single session of MPCNL for treating staghorn calculi were safe, feasible and efficient with an acceptable morbidity.

                Author and article information

                Chronic Dis Transl Med
                Chronic Dis Transl Med
                Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine
                KeAi Publishing
                19 December 2016
                December 2016
                19 December 2016
                : 2
                : 4
                : 250-256
                [a ]Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006, China
                [b ]Department of Clinical Medicine, Luohe Medical College, Luohe, Henan 462002, China
                [c ]Department of Toxicology, School of Radiation Medicine and Public Health, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123, China
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. yuyang737@

                The three authors contribute equally to the work.

                © 2016 Chinese Medical Association. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of KeAi Communications Co., Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

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