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      Gamma linolenic acid regulates PHD2 mediated hypoxia and mitochondrial apoptosis in DEN induced hepatocellular carcinoma

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the known major health problems across the globe, and is sixth ranked among all cancer, due to its high mortality rate. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play an important role in the formation of a cell membrane, along with the fluidity of the membrane and proteins. Gamma linolenic acid (GLA) is member of the ω-6 family of PUFAs and converts into the arachidonic acid via a series of elongation and desaturation reactions. The aim of the current investigation was to scrutinize the effect of GLA on mitochondrial mediated apoptosis and anti-inflammatory pathway against diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced HCC.

          Materials and methods

          Chemical carcinogenesis in Wistar rats was introduced by an intra-peritoneal dose of DEN (200 mg/kg). The rats received the various doses of GLA for 22 weeks. The progressions of serum biomarkers and histopathology components of hepatic tissue were used to access the prophylactic effects. The antioxidant parameters, cancer preventive agent status, and apoptosis mechanism were reviewed to scrutinize the possible mechanism.

          Results

          Dose-dependent treatment of GLA significantly ( P<−0.001) modulated the hepatic nodules, hepatic, body weight, antioxidant, and non-hepatic parameters. Curiously, the Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoblotting showed the GLA altered reduced the hypoxic microenvironment, mitochondrial mediated death apoptosis, and anti-inflammsatory pathways.

          Conclusion

          On the basis of the above results, we can conclude that the GLA exhibited a chemo-protective effect against DEN induced HCC that might be due to the altered hypoxic microenvironment, mitochondrial mediated death apoptosis, and anti-inflammatory pathway, respectively.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Programmed cell death pathways in cancer: a review of apoptosis, autophagy and programmed necrosis.

           L Ouyang,  Z. Shi,  S. Zhao (2012)
          Programmed cell death (PCD), referring to apoptosis, autophagy and programmed necrosis, is proposed to be death of a cell in any pathological format, when mediated by an intracellular program. These three forms of PCD may jointly decide the fate of cells of malignant neoplasms; apoptosis and programmed necrosis invariably contribute to cell death, whereas autophagy can play either pro-survival or pro-death roles. Recent bulk of accumulating evidence has contributed to a wealth of knowledge facilitating better understanding of cancer initiation and progression with the three distinctive types of cell death. To be able to decipher PCD signalling pathways may aid development of new targeted anti-cancer therapeutic strategies. Thus in this review, we present a brief outline of apoptosis, autophagy and programmed necrosis pathways and apoptosis-related microRNA regulation, in cancer. Taken together, understanding PCD and the complex interplay between apoptosis, autophagy and programmed necrosis may ultimately allow scientists and clinicians to harness the three types of PCD for discovery of further novel drug targets, in the future cancer treatment. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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            Chemokines in tumor progression and metastasis

            Chemokines play a vital role in tumor progression and metastasis. Chemokines are involved in the growth of many cancers including breast cancer, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, melanoma, lung cancer, gastric cancer, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, colon cancer, non-small lung cancer and non-hodgkin's lymphoma among many others. The expression of chemokines and their receptors is altered in many malignancies and leads to aberrant chemokine receptor signaling. This review focuses on the role of chemokines in key processes that facilitate tumor progression including proliferation, senescence, angiogenesis, epithelial mesenchymal transition, immune evasion and metastasis.
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              Deficiency or inhibition of oxygen sensor Phd1 induces hypoxia tolerance by reprogramming basal metabolism.

              HIF prolyl hydroxylases (PHD1-3) are oxygen sensors that regulate the stability of the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) in an oxygen-dependent manner. Here, we show that loss of Phd1 lowers oxygen consumption in skeletal muscle by reprogramming glucose metabolism from oxidative to more anaerobic ATP production through activation of a Pparalpha pathway. This metabolic adaptation to oxygen conservation impairs oxidative muscle performance in healthy conditions, but it provides acute protection of myofibers against lethal ischemia. Hypoxia tolerance is not due to HIF-dependent angiogenesis, erythropoiesis or vasodilation, but rather to reduced generation of oxidative stress, which allows Phd1-deficient myofibers to preserve mitochondrial respiration. Hypoxia tolerance relies primarily on Hif-2alpha and was not observed in heterozygous Phd2-deficient or homozygous Phd3-deficient mice. Of medical importance, conditional knockdown of Phd1 also rapidly induces hypoxia tolerance. These findings delineate a new role of Phd1 in hypoxia tolerance and offer new treatment perspectives for disorders characterized by oxidative stress.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2018
                13 December 2018
                : 12
                : 4241-4252
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou City, Henan Province 450008, China
                [2 ]Chandra Shekhar Singh College of Pharmacy, Allahabad, India, phmukesh1980@ 123456gmail.com
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Mukesh Kumar, Chandra Shekhar Singh College of Pharmacy, Koilaha, G.T. Road, Puramufti, Kausambi, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh 212203, India, Tel +91 984 893 8481, Email phmukesh1980@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                dddt-12-4241
                10.2147/DDDT.S178519
                6296206
                © 2018 Cui et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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