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      Trospium chloride: an update on a quaternary anticholinergic for treatment of urge urinary incontinence

      Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management

      Dove Medical Press

      urge incontinence, trospium, anticholinergic, overactive bladder

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          Abstract

          Trospium chloride is a quaternary ammonium compound, which is a competitive antagonist at muscarinic cholinergic receptors. Preclinical studies using porcine and human detrusor muscle strips demonstrated that trospium chloride was many-fold more potent than oxybutynin and tolterodine in inhibiting contractile responses to carbachol and electrical stimulation. The drug is poorly bioavailable orally (< 10%) and food reduces absorption by 70%– 80%. It is predominantly eliminated renally as unchanged compound. Trospium chloride, dosed 20 mg twice daily, is significantly superior to placebo in improving cystometric parameters, reducing urinary frequency, reducing incontinence episodes, and increasing urine volume per micturition. In active-controlled trials, trospium chloride was at least equivalent to immediate-release formulations of oxybutynin and tolterodine in efficacy and tolerability. The most problematic adverse effects of trospium chloride are the anticholinergic effects of dry mouth and constipation. Comparative efficacy/tolerability data with long-acting formulations of oxybutynin and tolterodine as well as other anticholinergics such as solifenacin and darifenacin are not available. On the basis of available data, trospium chloride does not appear to be a substantial advance upon existing anticholinergics in the management of urge urinary incontinence.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Updating the Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults: results of a US consensus panel of experts.

          Medication toxic effects and drug-related problems can have profound medical and safety consequences for older adults and economically affect the health care system. The purpose of this initiative was to revise and update the Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in adults 65 years and older in the United States. This study used a modified Delphi method, a set of procedures and methods for formulating a group judgment for a subject matter in which precise information is lacking. The criteria reviewed covered 2 types of statements: (1) medications or medication classes that should generally be avoided in persons 65 years or older because they are either ineffective or they pose unnecessarily high risk for older persons and a safer alternative is available and (2) medications that should not be used in older persons known to have specific medical conditions. This study identified 48 individual medications or classes of medications to avoid in older adults and their potential concerns and 20 diseases/conditions and medications to be avoided in older adults with these conditions. Of these potentially inappropriate drugs, 66 were considered by the panel to have adverse outcomes of high severity. This study is an important update of previously established criteria that have been widely used and cited. The application of the Beers criteria and other tools for identifying potentially inappropriate medication use will continue to enable providers to plan interventions for decreasing both drug-related costs and overall costs and thus minimize drug-related problems.
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            Effects of tolterodine, trospium chloride, and oxybutynin on the central nervous system.

             A Todorova,  W Dimpfel,  B Guth (2001)
            Antimuscarinic compounds are increasingly used to treat the symptoms of overactive bladder; however, their use is often restricted by peripheral adverse effects (AEs). On the other hand, data regarding their influence on the central nervous system (CNS) are limited. This randomized, single-blind, parallel-group quantitative-topographical EEG (qEEG) study of clinical phase I investigates the potential CNS adverse effects of the three antimuscarinic drugs--tolterodine, oxybutynin, and trospium chloride--in comparison to placebo. Overall, 4 x 16 (total 64) young, healthy male volunteers were included in the study. The subjects were given either placebo or the clinically recommended daily doses of the drugs dispensed in three doses on a single day (tolterodine 2 mg bid and once placebo, total 4 mg/d; oxybutynin 5 mg tid, total 15 mg/d; and trospium chloride 15 mg tid, total 45 mg/d). The qEEG was recorded prior to and up to 4 hours after each intake of the trial medication (a total of 10 qEEG sessions) under three different conditions: at rest with eyes open, eyes closed, and under mental demand. The drug tolerability was subjectively evaluated by the volunteer and the investigator. In comparison to placebo (10% confidence interval), tolterodine and trospium chloride did not induce changes of the qEEG power in five of the six frequency bands (i.e., delta, alpha 1, alpha 2, beta 1, and beta 2). Isolated power decreases were only observed in the theta frequency band. In contrast, oxybutynin caused significant power reductions in four frequency bands (theta, alpha 1, alpha 2, and beta 1; p < 0.01). The subjectively evaluated drug tolerability was comparable between all treatment groups, although differences in the AE occurrence existed, with the AE frequency being higher in the oxybutynin group. The results of this study support the findings that oxybutynin as a tertiary amine crosses the blood-brain barrier, causing significant qEEG activity changes and more pronounced central adverse effects. Although tolterodine is also a tertiary amine, it shows limited effects on qEEG activity (i.e., slight theta power reductions), comparable to the effects of trospium chloride, a quarternary amine, which barely crosses the blood-brain barrier. The minimal qEEG changes observed with tolterodine and trospium chloride reflect most probably a rebound message from the peripheral target organs. Prescription of oxybutynin thus implicates a higher risk of CNS side effects.
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              Effectiveness of anticholinergic drugs compared with placebo in the treatment of overactive bladder: systematic review.

              To determine the effectiveness of anticholinergic drugs for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome. Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Published papers and abstracts. Randomised controlled trials with anticholinergic drug treatment in one arm and placebo in another. Primary outcomes of interest were patient perceived cure or improvement in symptoms, differences in number of incontinent episodes and number of voids in 24 hours, and side effects. Secondary outcomes of interest were urodynamic measures of bladder function (volume at first contraction, maximum cystometric capacity, and residual volume) and adverse events. 32 trials were included, totalling 6800 participants. Most trials were described as double blind but were variable in other aspects of quality. At the end of treatment, cure or improvement (relative risk 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.29 to 1.54), differences in incontinent episodes in 24 hours (estimated mean difference 0.6, 0.4 to 0.8), number of voids in 24 hours (0.6, 0.4 to 0.8), maximum cystometric capacity (54 ml, 43 ml to 66 ml), and volume at first contraction (52 ml, 37 ml to 67 ml), were significantly in favour of anticholinergics (P<0.0001 for all). Anticholinergics were associated with significantly higher residual volumes (4 ml, 1 ml to 7 ml; P=0.02) and an increased rate of dry mouth (relative risk 2.56, 2.24 to 2.92; P<0.0001). Sensitivity analysis, although affected by small numbers of studies, showed little likelihood of an effect of age, sex, diagnosis, or choice of drug. Although statistically significant, the differences between anticholinergic drugs and placebo were small, apart from the increased rate of dry mouth in patients receiving active treatment. For many of the outcomes studied, the observed difference between anticholinergics and placebo may be of questionable clinical significance. None of these studies provided data on long term outcome.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                June 2005
                June 2005
                : 1
                : 2
                : 157-167
                Affiliations
                Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: David RP Guay University of Minnesota, College of Pharmacy, Weaver-Densford Hall 7-115C, 308 Harvard Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA Tel +1 612 626 5981 Fax +1 612 625 3927 Email guayx001@ 123456umn.edu
                Article
                1661617
                18360555
                © 2005 Dove Medical Press Limited. All rights reserved
                Categories
                Review

                Medicine

                urge incontinence, trospium, anticholinergic, overactive bladder

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