To ascertain the effectiveness of topical antioxidant therapy on acute corneal inflammation, we have studied the effectiveness of topical treatment with a saline solution and with antioxidants such as 0.2% superoxide dismutase and 0.5% dimethylthiourea (DMTU) in a controlled experimental study. The evolution of the inflammatory process was evaluated by a multimodel approach, including computer-assisted planimetry of the corneal ulcer and infiltrate, ultrasonic pachymetry, luminol-amplified chemiluminescence and the study of corneal transparency by direct spectral spectrophotometry transmittance. The experimental model was a corneal ulcer created by a 60-second application of 1 N sodium hydroxide. Topical treatment with DMTU was shown to significantly improve all parameters tested, while superoxide dismutase reduced only the corneal ulcers. Antioxidant topical therapy with DMTU was shown to be efficient in reducing the inflammatory reaction that occurs during acute corneal inflammation. This suggests that antioxidant therapy could be considered as a complementary treatment in the pharmacological modulation of acute corneal inflammation.