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      Ischemic stroke: experimental models and reality

      Acta Neuropathologica
      Springer Berlin Heidelberg
      Animal model, Cerebral ischemia, Focal ischemia, In vitro model, Non-human primate, Stroke

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          The vast majority of cerebral stroke cases are caused by transient or permanent occlusion of a cerebral blood vessel (“ ischemic stroke”) eventually leading to brain infarction. The final infarct size and the neurological outcome depend on a multitude of factors such as the duration and severity of ischemia, the existence of collateral systems and an adequate systemic blood pressure, etiology and localization of the infarct, but also on age, sex, comorbidities with the respective multimedication and genetic background. Thus, ischemic stroke is a highly complex and heterogeneous disorder. It is immediately obvious that experimental models of stroke can cover only individual specific aspects of this multifaceted disease. A basic understanding of the principal molecular pathways induced by ischemia-like conditions comes already from in vitro studies. One of the most frequently used in vivo models in stroke research is the endovascular suture or filament model in rodents with occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), which causes reproducible infarcts in the MCA territory. It does not require craniectomy and allows reperfusion by withdrawal of the occluding filament. Although promptly restored blood flow is far from the pathophysiology of spontaneous human stroke, it more closely mimics the therapeutic situation of mechanical thrombectomy which is expected to be increasingly applied to stroke patients. Direct transient or permanent occlusion of cerebral arteries represents an alternative approach but requires craniectomy. Application of endothelin-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, allows induction of transient focal ischemia in nearly any brain region and is frequently used to model lacunar stroke. Circumscribed and highly reproducible cortical lesions are characteristic of photothrombotic stroke where infarcts are induced by photoactivation of a systemically given dye through the intact skull. The major shortcoming of this model is near complete lack of a penumbra. The two models mimicking human stroke most closely are various embolic stroke models and spontaneous stroke models. Closeness to reality has its price and goes along with higher variability of infarct size and location as well as unpredictable stroke onset in spontaneous models versus unpredictable reperfusion in embolic clot models.

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          Post-Stroke Depression: A Review.

          Poststroke depression (PSD) has been recognized by psychiatrists for more than 100 years, but controlled systematic studies did not begin until the 1970s. Meta-analyses addressing almost all major clinical issues in the field have emerged because of the relatively small number of patients included in some stroke studies. In order to build large databases, these meta-analyses have merged patients with rigorously assessed mood disorders with major depressive features with patients scoring above arbitrary cutoff points on depression rating scales, thus missing important findings such as cognitive impairment associated with major but not minor depression. Nevertheless, PSD occurs in a significant number of patients and constitutes an important complication of stroke, leading to greater disability as well as increased mortality. The most clinically important advances, however, have been in the treatment and prevention of PSD. Recent meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials for the treatment of PSD have demonstrated the efficacy of antidepressants. Similarly, randomized controlled trials for prevention of PSD have shown that antidepressants significantly decrease the incidence of PSD compared with placebo. Early antidepressant treatment of PSD appears to enhance both physical and cognitive recovery from stroke and might increase survival up to 10 years following stroke. There has also been progress in understanding the pathophysiology of PSD. Inflammatory processes might be associated with the onset of at least some depressive symptoms. In addition, genetic and epigenetic variations, white matter disease, cerebrovascular deregulation, altered neuroplasticity, and changes in glutamate neurotransmission might be relevant etiological factors. Further elucidation of the mechanism of PSD may ultimately lead to specific targeted treatments.
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            Central nervous system injury-induced immune deficiency syndrome.

            Infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with acute CNS injury. It has recently become clear that CNS injury significantly increases susceptibility to infection by brain-specific mechanisms: CNS injury induces a disturbance of the normally well balanced interplay between the immune system and the CNS. As a result, CNS injury leads to secondary immunodeficiency - CNS injury-induced immunodepression (CIDS) - and infection. CIDS might serve as a model for the study of the mechanisms and mediators of brain control over immunity. More importantly, understanding CIDS will allow us to work on developing effective therapeutic strategies, with which the outcome after CNS damage by a host of diseases could be improved by eliminating a major determinant of poor recovery.
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              Recommendations for standards regarding preclinical neuroprotective and restorative drug development.

              The plethora of failed clinical trials with neuroprotective drugs for acute ischemic stroke have raised justifiable concerns about how best to proceed for the future development of such interventions. Preclinical testing of neuroprotective drugs is an important aspect of assessing their therapeutic potential, but guidelines concerning how to perform preclinical development of purported neuroprotective drugs for acute ischemic stroke are lacking. This conference of academicians and industry representatives was convened to suggest such guidelines for the preclinical evaluation of neuroprotective drugs and to recommend to potential clinical investigators the data they should review to reassure themselves that a particular neuroprotective drug has a reasonable chance to succeed in an appropriately designed clinical trial. Without rigorous, robust, and detailed preclinical evaluation, it is unlikely that novel neuroprotective drugs will prove to be effective when tested in large, time-consuming, and expensive clinical trials. Additionally, similar recommendations are provided for drugs with the potential to enhance recovery after acute ischemic stroke, a burgeoning new field with great potential but little currently available data. The suggestions contained in this document are meant to serve as overall guidelines that must be adapted to the individual characteristics related to particular drugs and their preclinical and clinical development needs.

                Author and article information

                ++49-6131-17-3213 , clemens.sommer@unimedizin-mainz.de
                Acta Neuropathol
                Acta Neuropathol
                Acta Neuropathologica
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                7 January 2017
                7 January 2017
                : 133
                : 2
                : 245-261
                GRID grid.410607.4, Institute of Neuropathology, , University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz; Focus Program Translational Neuroscience (FTN) and Rhine Main Neuroscience Network (rmn2), ; Langenbeckstrasse 1, 55131 Mainz, Germany
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                © The Author(s) 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                : 14 November 2016
                : 31 December 2016
                : 1 January 2017
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001659, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft;
                Award ID: SO 908/3-1
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                © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

                animal model,cerebral ischemia,focal ischemia,in vitro model,non-human primate,stroke
                animal model, cerebral ischemia, focal ischemia, in vitro model, non-human primate, stroke


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