The Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS), in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Cancer Institute, is the largest population-based registry focused exclusively on primary brain and other central nervous system (CNS) tumors in the United States (US) and represents the entire US population. This report contains the most up-to-date population-based data on primary brain tumors available and supersedes all previous reports in terms of completeness and accuracy. All rates are age-adjusted using the 2000 US standard population and presented per 100,000 population. The average annual age-adjusted incidence rate (AAAIR) of all malignant and non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors was 23.41 (Malignant AAAIR = 7.08, non-Malignant AAAIR = 16.33). This rate was higher in females compared to males (25.84 versus 20.82), Whites compared to Blacks (23.50 versus 23.34), and non-Hispanics compared to Hispanics (23.84 versus 21.28). The most commonly occurring malignant brain and other CNS tumor was glioblastoma (14.6% of all tumors), and the most common non-malignant tumor was meningioma (37.6% of all tumors). Glioblastoma was more common in males, and meningioma was more common in females. In children and adolescents (age 0–19 years), the incidence rate of all primary brain and other CNS tumors was 6.06. An estimated 86,010 new cases of malignant and non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors are expected to be diagnosed in the US in 2019 (25,510 malignant and 60,490 non-malignant). There were 79,718 deaths attributed to malignant brain and other CNS tumors between 2012 and 2016. This represents an average annual mortality rate of 4.42. The five-year relative survival rate following diagnosis of a malignant brain and other CNS tumor was 35.8%, and the five-year relative survival rate following diagnosis of a non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors was 91.5%.