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      Pulse Pressure and Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Hypertensive Patients

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          Abstract

          Background: Impaired left ventricular diastolic function is a common finding in essential hypertension. Methods: In order to investigate possible relationships between flow velocity through the mitral valve (E/A; index of left ventricular diastolic function) and 24-hour blood pressure and heart rate variations, 198 patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension were studied by Doppler echocardiography and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. They were divided according to age into group 1 (n = 88, age 40–54 years) and group 2 (n = 110, age 55–79 years). Each group was divided into subgroups with (1a, 2a) or without (1b, 2b) left ventricular hypertrophy according to the end-diastolic posterior wall thickness and/or the interventricular septum thickness. Results: In a multivariate stepwise regression analysis, age (β = –0.25, p < 0.0001), posterior wall thickness (β = –0.31, p < 0.0057) and mean heart rate during the day (β = –0.34, p < 0.0284) were the independent predictors of E/A in the pooled population. In group 1a (young subjects with left ventricular hypertrophy), mean systolic blood pressure during the night (β = –0.33, p < 0.041) was the only independent predictor of E/A. In the elderly group without left ventricular hypertrophy (group 2b), the mean heart rate during the day (β = –0.44, p < 0.0000) and mean pulse pressure during the night (β = –0.60, p < 0.0007) were the independent predictors of E/A. Conclusions: The new finding provided by this study is that in elderly hypertensive patients without left ventricular hypertrophy, a large pulse pressure at night may serve as an independent predictor of abnormal left ventricular diastolic filling.

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          Most cited references 7

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          Determinants of Doppler indexes of left ventricular diastolic function in normal subjects (the Framingham Heart Study).

          Normative Doppler values and determinants of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in healthy subjects have not been fully elucidated. Subjects from the Framingham Heart Study were examined to describe reference values and determinants of echocardiographic Doppler indexes of diastolic function. One hundred twenty-seven randomly selected, rigorously defined, normal subjects, approximately evenly distributed by sex and age from the third through the eighth decades were studied by Doppler echocardiography. Normative values for 7 frequently used Doppler indexes of LV diastolic function are presented. Doppler indexes of LV diastolic function change dramatically with age; the peak velocity of early filling divided by late filling (peak velocity E/A) ranges from a mean of 2.08 +/- 0.55 for subjects in their third decade to 0.84 +/- 0.29 for those in their eighth decade. A peak velocity E/A ratio less than 1 is abnormal in subjects aged less than 40 years, but occurs in most subjects aged greater than or equal to 70 years. The high correlations between age and Doppler indexes of LV diastolic function are not greatly attenuated after adjustment for other clinical parameters associated with diastolic function; the multivariate partial correlation coefficient between age and peak velocity E/A is -0.80 (p less than 0.0001). Heart rate, PR interval, LV systolic function, sex and systolic blood pressure are minor determinants of Doppler indexes of diastolic function. Body mass index, left atrial diameter, and LV wall thickness, internal dimension and mass have little or no association with Doppler indexes in healthy subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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            Echocardiographic diastolic ventricular abnormality in hypertensive heart disease: atrial emptying index.

            To analyze changes in left ventricular diastolic properties in hypertensive heart disease, the atrial emptying index was used to assess the rapid phase of diastolic filling of the left ventricle. Ten normal subjects (Group 1), 11 hypertensive patients without evidence of cardiac involvement (Group 2) and 10 hypertensive patients with echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy (Group 3) were compared using M mode echocardiography and systemic hemodynamic data. Whereas cardiac index (dye-dilution method) and rate of circumferential fiber shortening (echocardiogram) were normal in all three groups, there was a progressive increase in left atrial index (p less than 0.001, Group 1 versus Group 2 and versus Group 3) and a progressive decrease in the atrial emptying index (p less than 0.001, Group 1 versus Group 2 and versus Group 3). No correlation existed between the atrial emptying index and the left atrial index, mean arterial pressure or total peripheral resistance in any of the three groups. These data suggest that rapid filling of the left ventricle is reduced early in hypertension, even before electrocardiographic or systolic echocardiographic abnormalities are detectable. The atrial emptying index therefore appears to be an early indicator of abnormalities of left ventricular diastolic compliance in uncomplicated hypertension.
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              Intact systolic left ventricular function in clinical congestive heart failure.

              Clinical congestive heart failure (CHF) is traditionally associated wtih significant left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. Over a 1-year period, 58 patients with CHF and intact systolic function (LV ejection fraction [EF] 62 +/- 11%) were identified. An objective clinical-radiographic CHF score was used to document the clinical impression. Based on radionuclide evaluation of peak filling rate, 38% of these patients were found to have a significant abnormality in diastolic function as measured by peak filling rate (less than 2.50 end-diastolic volume/s). An additional 24% of the patients had probable diastolic dysfunction with borderline abnormal peak filling rate measurements (2.5 to 3.0 end-diastolic volume/s). The disease states most frequently associated with CHF and intact systolic function were coronary artery disease and systemic hypertension. During a 3-month sampling period 42% of patients with clinical diagnosis of CHF referred to the nuclear cardiology laboratory were found to have intact systolic function; thus, intact systolic function is not uncommon in patients with clinical CHF. Abnormal diastolic function is the most frequently encountered mechanism for the occurrence of CHF. Definition of systolic and diastolic function appears relevant for development of optimal therapeutic strategies for the treatment of patients with CHF.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2004
                July 2004
                09 July 2004
                : 102
                : 2
                : 108-114
                Affiliations
                Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Medical School, University of Athens, ‘Alexandra’ Hospital, Athens, Greece
                Article
                78149 Cardiology 2004;102:108–114
                10.1159/000078149
                15118340
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 7, References: 27, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Noninvasive and Diagnostic Cardiology

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