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      Cyclosporin A Induces Peritoneal Fibrosis and Angiogenesis during Chronic Peritoneal Exposure to a Glucose-Based, Lactate-Buffered Dialysis Solution in the Rat

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          Background/Aims: Cyclosporin A (CsA) stimulates the development of fibrosis. We investigated whether CsA contributes to peritoneal alterations induced by long-term exposure to dialysis solutions. Methods: Ten rats received peritoneal infusion of dialysis solution and oral CsA for 8 weeks. Eight received only the dialysis solution (controls). Peritoneal function was assessed at 8 weeks followed by sacrifice. The number of vessels was counted, fibrosis was assessed and hydroxyproline was determined. PCR was performed for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Results: Histology revealed more fibrosis, hydroxyproline and vessels (thick walled) in CsA-exposed animals. Peritoneal transport was not different. The mRNA content of TGF-β, CTGF and VEGF was higher in CsA. Conclusion: CsA combined with exposure to dialysis solutions was associated with increased peritoneal fibrosis and angiogenesis.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Expression of connective tissue growth factor in human renal fibrosis.

          Chronic renal failure may occur in etiologically diverse renal diseases and can be caused by hemodynamic, immunologic and metabolic factors. Initial damage may evoke irreversible scarring, which involves production of a number of proinflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines, including platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta). Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a cytokine of the family of growth regulators comprising sef10, cyr61, CTGF and nov, has recently been described in association with scleroderma and other scarring conditions. We investigated CTGF mRNA expression in 65 human renal biopsy specimens of various renal diseases by in situ hybridization. In control human kidney CTFG mRNA was mainly expressed in visceral epithelial cells, parietal epithelial cells, and some interstitial cells. Connective tissue growth factor was strongly up-regulated in the extracapillary and severe mesangial proliferative lesions of crescentic glomerulonephritis, IgA nephropathy, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis and diabetic nephropathy. An increase in the number of cells expressing CTGF mRNA was observed at sites of chronic tubulointerstitial damage, which correlated with the degree of damage. in the tubulointerstitial area the majority of the CTGF mRNA positive cells coexpressed alpha-smooth muscle actin, and were negative for macrophage markers. Our results indicate that CTGF may be a common growth factor involved in renal fibrosis.
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            Cyclosporine-associated chronic nephropathy.

            We evaluated glomerular filtration in 17 recipients of heart transplants who were treated for 12 months or longer with cyclosporine (cyclosporin A). The control group consisted of 15 heart-transplant recipients who were treated with azathioprine and who had also survived for at least 12 months. Despite an equivalent cardiac output, the glomerular filtration rate was depressed (51 +/- 4 vs. 93 +/- 3 ml per minute, P less than 0.005) in transplant recipients treated with cyclosporine. Cyclosporine treatment was also associated with reduced renal plasma flow (320 +/- 21 vs. 480 +/- 30 ml per minute, P less than 0.001). A trend toward restricted transglomerular transport of neutral dextrans (radii, 2.4 to 5.8 nm) in cyclosporine-treated recipients suggested an intrinsic loss of ultrafiltration capacity by glomerular capillaries rather than a hemodynamic basis for the reduced glomerular filtration rate. Histopathologic examination of the kidneys of five cyclosporine-treated patients with glomerular hypofiltration revealed a variable degree of tubulointerstitial injury accompanied by focal glomerular sclerosis. Among the 32 heart-transplant recipients treated for more than 12 months with cyclosporine at our center, end-stage renal failure developed in 2. We conclude that long-term cyclosporine therapy may lead to irreversible and potentially progressive nephropathy. We recommend that cyclosporine be used with restraint and caution until ways are found to mitigate its nephrotoxicity.
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              Morphologic changes of peritoneum and expression of VEGF in encapsulated peritoneal sclerosis rat models.

              Simple sclerosis consisted of a thin layer of submesothelial sclerotic tissue in peritoneal dialysis patients. Encapsulated peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) was characterized by thick sclerotic tissue involving vascular alterations in peritoneal dialysis patients. The objective of the present study is to evaluate serial morphologic changes and expressions of angiogenic factors [i.e., vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopietin-1 (Ang-1), and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2)] in EPS rat models. Twenty-four rats were given a daily intraperitoneal injection of chlorhexidine gluconate and ethanol dissolved in saline (CH). Nine rats were injected with CH and anti-VEGF neutralizing antibody simultaneously. Quantitative blood vessel evaluation was performed by staining for GS1-lectin. The mRNA expression of VEGF, Ang-1, Ang-2, and their receptors was evaluated by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Immunohistochemical staining was performed in peritoneal vessels using anti-VEGF, Ang-1, and Ang-2 antibodies. Hematopoietic stem cells were detected using anti-CD34 antibody. The vessel area, diameter, and length gradually increased until day 21, and then decreased. VEGF and Ang-2 mRNA expressions gradually increased until day 35. In contrast, Ang-1 peaked at day 21 and then decreased significantly. VEGF blockade improved the experimental EPS. In immunohistochemistry, the vessels stained by VEGF and Ang-2 were detected in subfibrous layer. CD34-positive cells were markedly stained at day 21. Neoangiogenesis was observed in a rat model of experimental EPS. VEGF and angiopoietin/Tie system play an important role in the neoangiogenesis in this model. An analysis using this experimental rat model may elucidate the development of EPS in peritoneal dialysis patients.

                Author and article information

                Blood Purif
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                January 2008
                14 December 2007
                : 25
                : 5-6
                : 466-472
                Departments of aNephrology, bPathology and cExperimental Hepatology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                112475 Blood Purif 2007;25:466–472
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 6, References: 30, Pages: 7
                Orginal Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Angiogenesis, Peritoneal dialysis, Cyclosporin, Fibrosis


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